John Milledge

Dr John Milledge BSc, MPhil, PhD

Research Fellow

Dr John Milledge completed a PhD at the University of Southampton on "Energy Balance and Techno-economic Assessment of Algal Biofuel Production Systems", and whilst working as a Research Demonstrator at Reading University he completed research for an MPhil, "The Hygienic Design of Food Plant". He also graduated from Reading University with a BSc in Food Technology.

He was previously a Researcher and Visiting Research Fellow at the University of Southampton working on energy balance modelling and techno-economic assessment of algal biomass cultivation systems. John was also Head of Research at Pure Energy Fuels working on the commercialisation of micro-algae, and has worked for G & M, Unilever Research, Sainsbury Spillers, Padleys, Palethorpes, Crosse & Blackwell, Unilever and as an independent biotechnology consultant. He has given specialist lectures at a number of Universities and Colleges.

Community activities include being a member of the Kent Society of Rugby Union Football Referees and Past President of Gravesend & Meopham Rotary Club.


Guest Editor Algal Biotechnology and Biofuels Special Edition of Energies. Guest Editor Algal Biofuels Special Edition of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering


Editor in Chief of Environment and Natural Resources Research (ENRR)

Research / Scholarly interests

Dr John J Milledge's current research interests are:

  • The use of seaweed, primarily Sargassum (both S. muticum and holopelagic species), for fuel and biorefining. - Ongoing project involvement: Darwin Plus funded project, "Sustainable solutions for Sargassum inundations in Turks & Caicos". Previous project involvement: a) EPSRC-funded project entitled "MacroBioCrude: developing a potential integrated process design and establishing the energetic and techno-economic viability together with sustainability of large-scale marine-based biofuel in UK coastal regions." b) Higher Value Chemicals from plants (HVCfP) funded project, "Road Map for the Use of Sargassum muticum in high-value Bioactive Compound Discovery". c) HVCfP funded project, "Novel application of brown seaweed as an antibacterial coating for interdental drug delivery".
  • The growth and processing of microalgae to produce biofuel, food and other high-value products. Current project involvement: 'Valgorize' (Valorisation of algae for a better taste) funded by Interreg-2-seas. Previous project involvement a) the Dfactory (the microalgae biorefinery) funded by the EU FP7. b) Interreg IVA Channel Project Ecotec 21, " Glycerol Fuel Supply Chain". c) AllGas, "Industrial-scale demonstration of sustainable algae cultures for biofuel production" supported by EU FP7
  • Energy Balance of bioenergy and algal production processes.
  • Anaerobic digestion.
  • Hygienic design of food plant – with interest in the cleanability of stainless steel used as a food contact surface.

Recent publications


Roy, Uttam K. , Nielsen, Birthe V., Milledge, John J. (2020), Effect of post-harvest conditions on antioxidant enzyme activity in Dunaliella tertiolecta biomass. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 27: 101661 ISSN: 1878-8181 (Print), 1878-8181 (Online) (doi:

Maneein, Supattra , Milledge, John J., Harvey, Patricia, Nielsen, Birthe (2020), Methane production from Sargassum muticum: effects of seasonality and of freshwater washes. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Energy and Built Environment, 2 (3) . pp. 235-242 ISSN: 2666-1233 (Print), (doi:

Milledge, John James , Maneein, Supattra, Arribas Lopez, Elena Arribas, Bartlett, Deborah (2020), Sargassum inundations in Turks and Caicos: methane potential and proximate, ultimate, lipid, amino acid, metal and metalloid analyses. In: , , , . , (doi: )

Milledge, John J. , Nielsen, Birthe V., Maneein, Supattra, Harvey, Patricia J. (2019), A brief review of anaerobic digestion of algae for bioenergy. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Energies, 12: 1166 (6) ISSN: 1996-1073 (Print), 1996-1073 (Online) (doi:

Maneein, Supattra , Milledge, John J., Nielsen, Birthe V., Harvey, Patricia J. (2018), A review of seaweed pre-treatment methods for enhanced biofuel production by anaerobic digestion or fermentation. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Fermentation, 4: 100 (4) . pp. 1-31 2311-5637 (Online) (doi:

Milledge, John J. , Nielsen, Birthe V., Sadek, Manar S., Harvey, Patricia J. (2018), Effect of freshwater washing pretreatment on Sargassum muticum as a feedstock for biogas production. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Energies, 11: 1771 (7) 1996-1073 (Online) (doi:

Milledge, John J. , Nielsen, Birthe V., Harvey, Patricia J. (2018), The inhibition of anaerobic digestion by model phenolic compounds representative of those from Sargassum muticum. Springer Netherlands. In: , , , . Springer Netherlands, Journal of Applied Phycology, 31 (1) . pp. 779-786 ISSN: 0921-8971 (Print), 1573-5176 (Online) (doi:

Milledge, John J. and , Heaven, Sonia (2017), Energy balance of biogas production from microalgae: Effect of harvesting method, multiple raceways, scale of plant and combined heat and power generation. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 5 (1) . pp. 9 ISSN: 2077-1312 (Print), 2077-1312 (Online) (doi:

Redden, Hilary , Milledge, John J., Greenwell, H. Chris, Dyer, Philip W. , Harvey, Patricia (2016), Changes in higher heating value and ash content of seaweed during ensiling. Springer. In: , , , . Springer, Journal of Applied Phycology, 29 (2) . pp. 1037-1046 ISSN: 0921-8971 (Print), 1573-5176 (Online) (doi:

Milledge, John J. and , Harvey, Patricia J. (2016), Golden tides: Problem or golden opportunity? The valorisation of sargassum from beach inundations. MDPI AG. In: , , , . MDPI AG, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 4: 60 (3) ISSN: 2077-1312 (Print), (doi:

Milledge, John J. and , Harvey, Patricia J. (2016), Potential process 'hurdles' in the use of macroalgae as feedstock for biofuel production in the British Isles. Wiley & Sons Ltd. In: , , , . Wiley & Sons Ltd, Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 91 (8) . pp. 2221-2234 ISSN: 0268-2575 (Print), 1097-4660 (Online) (doi:

Milledge, John J. , Nielsen, Birthe V., Bailey, David (2016), High-value products from macroalgae: the potential uses of the invasive brown seaweed, Sargassum muticum. Springer Netherlands. In: , , , . Springer Netherlands, Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 15 (1) . pp. 67-88 ISSN: 1569-1705 (Print), 1572-9826 (Online) (doi: NB Item availability restricted.

Milledge, John J. and , Harvey, Patricia J. (2016), Ensilage and anaerobic digestion of Sargassum muticum. In: , , , . , (doi: ) NB Item availability restricted

Milledge, John J. and , Heaven, Sonia (2016), Energy balance of biogas production from microalgae: Development of an energy and mass balance model. Bentham Science. In: , , , . Bentham Science, Current Biotechnology, 4 (4) . pp. 554-567 ISSN: 2211-5501 (Print), 2211-551X (Online) (doi: NB Item availability restricted.

Xu, Y. , Milledge, John J., Abubakar, A., Swamy, Rekha , Bailey, David , Harvey, Patricia (2015), Effects of centrifugal stress on cell disruption and glycerol leakage from Dunaliella salina. De Gruyter. In: , , , . De Gruyter, Microalgae Biotechnology, 1 (1) . pp. 20-27 2300-3561 (Online) (doi:

Milledge, John J. , Staple, Alan, Harvey, Patricia J. (2015), Slow pyrolysis as a method for the destruction of Japanese wireweed, Sargassum muticum. Canadian Center of Science and Education. In: , , , . Canadian Center of Science and Education, Environment and Natural Resources Research, 5 (1) . pp. 28-37 ISSN: 1927-0488 (Print), 1927-0496 (Online) (doi: NB Item availability restricted.

Book section

Milledge, John J. and , Maneein, Supattra (2020), Storage of seaweed for biofuel production: Ensilage. Elsevier. In: , , In: Maria Dolores Torres, Stefan Kraan, Herminia Dominguez (eds.), Sustainable Seaweed Technologies: Cultivation, Biorefinery, and Applications. Elsevier, . pp. 155-167 . ISBN: 9780128179437 (doi: NB Item availability restricted.

Milledge, John J. , Thompson, Elinor P., Sauvetre, Andre, Schroeder, Pater , Harvey, Patricia (2019), Novel developments in biological technologies for wastewater processing. Elsevier. In: , , In: Charis M. Galanakis, Evita Agrafioti (eds.), Sustainable Water and Wastewater Processing. Elsevier, . pp. 239-278 . ISBN: 9780128161708 (doi: NB Item availability restricted.

Milledge, John J. and , Harvey, Patricia J. (2018), Anaerobic digestion and gasification of seaweed. Springer International Publishing. In: , , In: Pabulo H. Rampelotto, Antonio Trincone (eds.), Grand Challenges in Marine Biotechnology. Springer International Publishing, Cham (1st) . pp. 237-258 . ISBN: 9783319690742 (doi:

Conference item

Milledge, John J. and , (2020), Sargassum - Golden tide or golden opportunity. In: University of Greenwich, Faculty of Engineering and Science Research Semin, 9th December 2020, Online , . , (doi: ).

Milledge, John J. and , (2020), Sustainable solutions for Sargassum inundations in Turks & Caicos. In: Technical webinar on Atlantic Sargassum, 4th November 2020, Online , . , (doi: ).

Milledge, John J. , Nielsen, Birthe, Harvey, Patricia (2018), Sargassum – Menace, Methane, Mouth and More. In: 3rd Medway Engineering Conference, 20 June 2018, University of Greenwich, Medway Campus , . , (doi: ).

Maneein, Supattra , Nielsen, Birthe, Milledge, John J. (2018), Comparison between automated anaerobic digestion test systems for determination of biochemical methane potential of cellulose. In: 5th International Conference on Renewable Energy Gas Technology, 3-4 May, Toulouse, France , . , (doi:

Zigan, Stefan , Hettiaratchi, Kaushika, Milledge, John J. (2017), Evaluate the blend quality of powders using a simplified mixing law. In: Reliable Flow of Particulate Solid V (RELPOWFLO V), 13-15 June 2017, Skien, Norway , . , (doi:

Milledge, John J. and , (2016), High Value Products from Seaweed. In: High Value Products from Algae, 1-2 November 2016, Nottingham , . , (doi:

Milledge, John J. and , (2016), Sargassum – Golden menace or golden opportunity. In: Society and the Sea, 15-16 September 2016, Greenwich Maritime Centre, University of Greenwich, London UK , . , (doi: ).

Milledge, John J. and , (2016), Algal biofuels. In: The Oil, Finance & Shipping Symposium (TOFS), 31 August 2016, University Of Greenwich at Medway, London, UK , . , (doi: ).

Milledge, John , Temukum, Ngomah Kien, Ratana, Amrita, Nielsen, Birthe , Harvey, Patricia (2015), Anaerobic Digestion (AD) of Novel Wastes. In: 3rd Faculty of Engineering & Science Research Symposium, September 2015, University of Greenwich , . , (doi: ).