Course Information Undergraduate prospectus

Inorganic Chemistry

Course summary

Course code: CHEM1029
Level: 4
Credits: 15
School: Engineering and Science
Department: Pharm, Chemical and Envi Science
Course Coordinator(s): Nichola Coleman

Specification

Pre and co requisites

Appropriate foundation year, UCAS points or if part time, relevant experience

Aims

This course is designed to cover the periodic classification of the elements in terms of theoretical models and observed behaviour of elements and their compounds. It will introduce students to quantum mechanical models of electronic structure and models of bonding. It will enable the student to apply these models to interpret the observed behaviour of elements and their compounds.

Greenwich graduate attributes such as the ability to think independently and analytically with new and unfamiliar areas of investigation will be fostered during this course.

Learning outcomes

On successful completion of this course a student will be able to:

1 Apply concepts arising from quantum mechanics to the electronic structure of atoms
2 Use the electronic structures of atoms to justify the periodic classification of the elements
3 Apply models of bonding and intermolecular attraction to explain properties of compounds
4 Investigate and interpret the properties of elements and their compounds in terms of electronic structure and bonding
5 Research information on the production and applications of selected elements and their compounds

Indicative content

1 Quantum mechanics and atoms
Quantisation of energy: absorption and emission spectra of elements, applications, measurement of wavelengths and energies, explanation in terms of energy levels in atoms.

The spectrum of atomic hydrogen: the Bohr model, spectral series (Lyman, Balmer and Paschen), the Rydberg equation, quantum numbers.

Atomic orbitals: permitted values of the n, l and m quantum numbers, electron spin, permitted values of the s quantum number, shapes and orientation of the s, p and d orbitals.

The electronic structure of atoms: applications of the Aufbau and Pauli exclusion principles and
of Hund’s rule, description of the atomic orbitals in terms of n, l and m values, their relative energies, electronic configurations of elements with atomic number 1 to 36.

2 Electronic structures of atoms and the periodic classification of the elements
Properties of atoms and ions: atomic, ionic, van der Waals, covalent and metallic radii, ionisation energies, electron affinities, electronegativities, their measurement.

Structure of the Periodic Table: periodic behaviour, trends in properties of atoms and ions within periods 2, 3 and 4 and down groups, explanation of trends in terms of electronic structures.

3 Models of bonding
Strong bonds: formation of ionic, covalent and metallic bonds, bond type related to ionisation energies, electron affinities and electronegativities, bonding intermediate between ionic and covalent (% ionic character), dative covalent (co-ordinate) bonding.

Properties of covalent bonds: bond length, bond order, bond enthalpy, bond polarity, polar molecules.

Intermolecular attraction: causes, occurrence and relative strengths of van der Waals forces, dipole-dipole attraction and hydrogen bonding.

Bonding and structure: formation, structure and typical properties of ionic and metallic crystal structures, giant covalent structures (macromolecules) and simple covalent molecules, explanation of structure and properties in terms of bonding and intermolecular attraction.

Localised bond models of covalent bonding: Lewis concepts (shared electron pairs), valence bond (resonance), hybridisation, valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory and the shapes of molecules.

Delocalised bond models: molecular orbitals, energy level diagrams, linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) for homonuclear and simple heteronuclear diatomic molecules, bond order and bond strength.

4 Properties of elements and their compounds
The third period of the Periodic Table: physical and chemical properties of the elements, oxides, hydrides and chlorides, interpretation of trends in terms of electronic structure and bonding.

s block, groups 1 and 2: physical and chemical properties of the elements, oxides, chlorides, carbonates, sulphates and nitrates, behaviour of ions in solution, interpretation of trends in terms of electronic structure and bonding, anomalous behaviour of lithium and beryllium and its explanation in terms of atomic structure, the diagonal relationship.

p block, group 3: physical and chemical properties of elements and their compounds with hydrogen, oxygen and chlorine (where appropriate), interpretation of trends in terms of electronic structure and bonding, application of oxidation states and standard electrode potentials, anomalous behaviour of first member of each group and its explanation in terms of atomic structure.

The chemistry of hydrogen: the hydrogen (H+) and hydroxonium ions (H3O+), Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases, the hydride ion (H-), reactions of metal hydrides, physical properties and reactions of covalent hydrides, bridging structures, hydrogen bonding.

Teaching and learning activity

The course will be delivered largely through lectures and tutorials (approximately 3:1). Underlying principles are explained in lectures; tutorials will establish the understanding of these principles. Theory will be related to practical applications in the Practical Science Skills course.

Assessment

Method of SUMMATIVE assessment: Coursework
Outcomes assessed:1-5
Grading Mode (e.g. pass/ fail; %): %
Weighting % :40%
Passmark: 40%
Word Length: n/a
Outline Details:4 Short assignments, which may include brief tests,problem-solving exercises or written coursework developed from directed work from the online content

Method of SUMMATIVE assessment: Examination
Outcomes assessed:1-4
Grading Mode (e.g. pass/ fail; %): %
Weighting % : 60%
Passmark: 40%
Word Length:n/a
Outline Details:2 hour written ‘short answer’ examination paper comprising a compulsory section and an elective section.

Nature of FORMATIVE assessment supporting student learning:
Regular quizzes (MCQ)