Further Inorganic Chemistry

Module summary

Module code: CHEM1033
Level: 5
Credits: 15
School: Engineering and Science
Department: Science
Module Coordinator(s): Samantha Booth

Specification

Aims

This module develops the content of the Level 4 module Inorganic Chemistry. It covers two areas of inorganic chemistry. In the first, it develops models of metallic and ionic structures. In the second, it covers transition metal complexes, models of bonding in complexes, the redox chemistry of transition metal compounds and the application of concepts involving complexation and redox chemistry to mechanisms for catalysis. The module as a whole therefore places inorganic chemistry within a wider context and applies concepts met in other modules.

Learning outcomes

On successful completion of this module a student will be able to:
1. Apply extended knowledge of group 13 -18 chemistry for groups
2. Apply models to explain structures of crystalline materials
3. Investigate and classify transition metal co-ordination complexes
4. Ability to analyse laboratory acquired data

Indicative content

1. Properties of elements and their compounds
p block, group 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18,: physical and chemical properties of elements and their compounds with hydrogen, oxygen and halogens (where appropriate), interpretation of trends in terms of electronic structure and bonding, application of oxidation states and standard electrode potentials, anomalous behaviour of first member of each group and its explanation in terms of atomic structure, effect of d orbitals on chemistry of groups and important polymers formed.

2. Crystalline materials
Metallic crystal structures: body centred cubic, face centred cubic and hexagonal close packed structures, close packed planes and close packed directions, relationship between metallic radius and lattice parameter for fcc and bcc structures.
Ionic crystal structures: MX and MX2 structures, limiting radius ratios for NaCl and CsCl structures, radius ratio, lattice enthalpy and most stable structure, lattice enthalpy from experimental data using the Born Haber cycle, factors affecting lattice enthalpies for halides and chlorides of groups 1 and 2.
Theoretical model for ionic crystal lattice: forces of attraction and repulsion between point charges, potential energy of a simple point charge system, lattice structure and Madelung constants , the Born equation, lattice enthalpy from theoretical data using the Born equation.

3. Transition metal co-ordination complexes
Co-ordination complexes: ligands (monodentate and polydentate), formation of co-ordinate bonds, formulae, shapes of complexes (linear, square plane, tetrahedral, octahedral), rules of nomenclature, absorption spectra.
Stability of complexes: ligand exchange, co-ordination equilibria, stability constants, stepwise formation constants, trends in formation constants, chelate effect, steric effects.
Preparation of complexes: oxidation, reduction, ligand displacement, decomposition.

4. Models for transition co-ordination complexes
Crystal field model: shapes and orientations of d orbitals, crystal field splitting effects in
octahedral and tetrahedral complexes, crystal field splitting parameter, spectrochemical series, effect of metal ion on crystal field splitting parameter, stabilisation energy, high and low spin configurations, magnetic properties (diamagnetic and paramagnetic) complexes, absorption spectra.
Ligand field model: Shortcomings of crystal field model, ligand field theory, combination of metal and ligand orbitals to give molecular orbitals, energy level diagrams for simple systems ( - bonds only), crystal field theory as a special case of ligand field theory.

5. Redox chemistry of transition metal compounds
The compounds of: titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper: oxidation states of the 3d transition metals, trends in oxidation state, ionic, covalent and intermediate bonding, acidic, amphoteric and basic oxides, standard electrode potentials and redox potentials, factors affecting stabilities of oxidation states, disproportionations, effect of complexing on stability of oxidation states.