Pat Harvey

Professor Patricia Harvey PhD, PFHEA

Professor of Biochemistry; Head of Bioenergy Research; Director of Biomedical Online Learning

Key details

Professor Patricia J Harvey

Professor of Biochemistry; Head of Bioenergy Research; Director of Biomedical Online Learning


Bioenergy; biorefineries; metabolic pathways of cells; hyperoxidant states and stress responses; lignocellulosic degradation; proteins; fast reaction kinetics of redox enzymes.


A plant biochemist with BSc and PhD degrees from the University of Durham. Thesis title: "Protein of Yam Tubers" (Rockefeller Foundation Scholarship, in conjunction with the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture).

Industrial and academic research career

A post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Durham to purify restriction endonucleases was followed by 2 years at Genzyme Biochemicals in R&D, then in Business Development. She returned to academia to conduct research into the biochemistry of lignin breakdown for 10 years at Imperial College, where fundamental BBSRC- and EU-funded research on lignocellulosic plant biomass degradation and mechanistic studies of the enzyme lignin peroxidase with redox mediators led to a major breakthrough in understanding the mechanism of polymeric lignin breakdown by wood-degrading fungi. This research served as a spring board for research programmes centred on renewable bioenergy at the University of Greenwich (1993-date).

Current research themes embrace the use of algal and non-food plant systems for the capture of CO2; biorefinery production of green chemicals and biofuels; plant and fungal enzyme applications in treating lignocellulosic waste streams; plant oils for biodiesel manufacture; biomass crops from contaminated land; anaerobic digestion and thermochemical treatment of food and agricultural by-products for biomethane production; and Bioenergy Supply Chains. Several of these themes were developed during her at time at the Institute of Advanced Study at Durham University as Biofuels, Science and Society Fellow. They have been taken forward with projects such as:

  • "Capacity-building in South Africa, Namibia and Ghana to create sustainable, non-food bio-oil supply chains (, an EU ACP S&T-funded project that targeted regional and local authorities, municipalities controlling sewage, water, involved in energy procurement programmes; community-based organisations; educational organisations; local authorities; non-governmental organisations; and researchers in Southern Africa (Namibia, South Africa) Western Africa (Ghana) and Europe (Italy, United Kingdom)
  • Ecotec 21, an Interreg-funded project, which is driving the innovation for glycerol-CHP as a sustainable retrofit solution for low carbon power generation, energy efficiency and cultural change, and represents an unusual multi-school collaboration between Architecture; Engineering; Science; Business; Psychology, and Facilities Management
  • Macrobiocrude, an EPSRC-funded project on macroalgae with UK universities;
  • Engineering Micro-algae for Pharmaceutical Production - an ABSIG SPARK (TSB, NERC, BBSRC) –funded project with IOTA Pharmaceuticals;
  • The CO2 Algal Biorefinery - The Microalgae biorefinery (D-Factory), an EU FP7 KBBE funded project with 13 partners from 8 countries.
  • The Kent Biofuels Project which established an integrated process for the production of biodiesel from oilseed rape with 12 partners from bioenergy technology companies, the farming community, and CHP and fuel companies in Kent and saw the creation of an Electricity Supply Company (Cantium Energy), established with a loan from Finance South East to supply midi-scale CHP operated on renewable biofuel;
  • The Zerowise Sustainable Food Waste Solutions Project, which addressed anaerobic digestion technologies for food wastes.

Prof Harvey is also the Director and founder of Biomed Online (  Established in 2002, Biomed Online comprises a successful programme of Master's level CPD courses delivered to the Healthcare sector.

Responsibilities within the university

  • DTI Training Alliance-Energy (2016-)
  • Carbon Management Board (2010 - date)
  • School of Science School Board (2004 – 2013)
  • School of Health and Social Care School Board (2003 - 2013)
  • School of Science Research Committee as Research Professor (2005 – 2013)
  • School of Science European Champion (2008 –2014)
  • Working party for the University Information Strategy (2007)
  • Avery Hill Campus Research Degrees Committee (2007-2008)
  • University Resources Sub-committee as Resources Director (2005-2008)
  • School Management Team as Resources Director (2005-2008)
  • Medway Campus estates committee (2005-2008)
  • School of Science Research, Outreach and Consultancy Committee (2005 – 2008)
  • Professors and Readers Selection Board (2004-2008)


  • Nordic Energy Research Reference Group Board for Nordic Flagship Program (2016-2021)
  • RSC-Pan Africa Chemistry Network Advisory Board (2015 - )
  • Grant Review Panel Formas Sweden: Resource Efficient Products and Processes (2014 –ongoing ); Forest Raw Materials (2014-ongoing); Chair Formas Sweden Panel Grant Review for: Research Synthesis (2015)
  • Grant Review Panel Nordic Energy Research Flagship Projects (2015)
  • Grant Review Panel BBSRC, EPSRC
  • Board member of the European Algal Biomass Association (2009 -2014)
  • Editorial Board (Associate Editor) Journal of Biomass to Biofuel
  • Governor of Dartford and Gravesham NHS Trust (2008 -date)
  • ReMade South East Steering committee: ReMade works with businesses, public organisations and community groups in the South East region to find practical solutions to challenging waste issues and minimise the region's environmental footprint by saving natural resources and reducing CO2 emissions (2006 -date)
  • Editorial Board member for Environmental Chemistry Letters (2004 - )
  • Scientific board member for the Association of Chemistry and the Environment (2004 -date)
  • Steering Committee for European Conferences on E-learning (2002 -date)
  • Management Committee (UK representative) of EU Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) Action 859: Phytotechnologies to improve food chain safety (2004 - 2009) and Chair of WG3: Improving nutritional quality & safety of food crops

Research / Scholarly interests

In land plants development of a hyperoxidant state accompanies modification of the plant cell wall architecture and is associated with an increase in extracellular peroxidase secretion, cell wall thickening and increased lignification, which limits productivity when plants are grown in contaminated land.

The effects in algae remain to be deciphered, but could provide new opportunities for tailoring microalgae such as Dunaliella to produce suites of compounds to meet market requirements, sustainably.

"Engineering Micro-algae for Pharmaceutical Production", is an ABSIG SPARK (TSB, NERC, BBSRC) –funded project with IOTA Pharmaceuticals to explore the chemical biology of D. salina, assessing its potential both as a direct source of bioactive compounds and as a host within which to engineer new pathways for the production of novel, high-value biochemicals, specifically targeting pharmaceutical applications.

An EU FP7 KBBE "The CO2 Algal Biorefinery" project (No: 613870), "The Microalgae biorefinery", will establish a sustainable biorefinery based on biomass from halophilic microalgae such as Dunaliella. Fuel-only algal systems are not economically feasible but algae biorefineries that aim at additional revenue streams besides algae biofuels offer a solution. Our aim is to showcase a sustainable biorefinery demonstration based on biomass from halophilic microalgae in Europe (The D-Factory), serving as a world benchmark for microalgae biorefineries.

Current and Previous Funded Research Projects

Capacity Building in South Africa, Namibia and Ghana to create sustainable, non-food bio-oil supply chains is a large multi-national EU- ACP S&T project that delivered a range of training, research and awareness-raising measures to build capacity and create non-food biomass-based supply chains in Namibia, Ghana and South Africa and underpin future green sustainable biofuel and chemical industries. Effort was focused on algae that can be cultivated in highly saline waters: these have the potential to produce oils, glycerol, and biochemicals and can be cultivated without indirect land use change (ILUC); on biomass for heat and power applications, and on biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic watery wastes. The project also nurtured the growing world-wide interest in algae and waste water management using Integrated Algal Pond Systems (IAPS) (also known as Advanced Integrated Waste Water Pond Systems (AIWPS) which use anaerobic technologies to extract bioenergy and produce biogas as well as lower costs in producing clean waste waters. In all,
* 8 research proposals were offered for funding, of which the FP7 KBBE proposal "The CO2 Microalgae Biorefinery (D-Factory)" was approved: The Microalgae Biorefinery (D-Factory) KBBE.2013.3.2 № 613870 has been recommended for funding for € 9,965,068.22 and through its Innovation Platform, will support the efforts of Glycal Namibia; and of salt pan owners in the Province of Trapani, Sicily, and in South Africa.
* More than 11 training initiatives were developed and delivered at Partner organisations and materials were made available on the project website at
* 6 new biofuel businesses were initiated, four of which were launched.
* 6 renewable Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems were planned.
* 6 promotional networking events were delivered with media coverage selected to reach relevant stakeholders (science and technology academics, professionals, decision-makers and support scheme managers).

"The CO2 microalgae biorefinery: D-Factory" (FP7 KBBE.2013.3.2-02 No: 613870)is a 10 million Euro FP7-funded project supporting 13 partners from 8 countries to produce suites of compounds from the microalga Dunaliella, flexibly to meet market requirements, and sustainably.

Representing the largest (100s ha) of current commercial cultivation technologies for any microalga, Dunaliella is cultivated commercially in highly saline non-potable waters for β-carotene, the content of which vastly exceeds that found in many land plants. After harvesting, the cells are spray-dried then sold as a high-value preparation of β-carotene that meets FDA approval. However β-carotene is not the only compound of commercial interest: Dunaliella cells also produce a range of other carotenoids, oxycarotenoids, lipids, proteins and other compounds of commercial value as well as glycerol: up to 80% of their mass, depending on biological and environmental conditions. Glycerol has emerged as both a new biofuel for an entirely new environmentally-sustainable, biofuel industry as well as an intermediate to replace various fossil oil-based bulk chemicals e.g. ethylene, propylene glycols, 1,4-butanediol, epichlorohydrin, acrolein.

Biorefinery concepts and European innovations in biomass processing technologies, namely: supercritical CO2 extraction; high performance counter-current chromatography and the use of membranes are being applied to Dunaliella biomass, and the productivities of algal strains are being tailored for biorefinery requirements. Photobioreactors and open raceways serve as cultivation vesicles and novel harvesting technology is being developed based on spiral plate technology and ultramembrane filtration to harvest the cells. Data emerging from the application of the bioprocessing technologies will be integrated with sustainability assessments (technological, environmental, economic and social) and used in the construction of designs, flow sheets and integrated schemes for the D-Factory business case, which will raise investment for the first prototype D-Factory in Europe. The D-Factory demonstration is scheduled to be operational within 48 months and will serve as a robust manifestation of the business case for global investment in algae biorefineries and in large-scale production of microalgae using photobioreactors, algal raceways and lakes.

ECOTEC 21: CHP technologies with biofuels including glycerol is an Interreg funded project which is driving the innovation for glycerol-CHP as a sustainable retrofit solution for low carbon power generation, energy efficiency and cultural change. Representing an unusual multi-school collaboration between Architecture; Engineering; Science; Business; Psychology, and the Facilities Management team, the aim is to demonstrate biofuel (glycerol) power generation at the Medway Campus, which is home to the Faculty of Engineering and Science, and develop the glycerol supply chain. The project will initially use glycerol from biodiesel manufacture, with current parallel research programmes underway to establish glycerol supplies from algae biorefineries. Future plans are to develop engineering solutions for year round glycerol production from microalgae by plumbing a modular microalgae cultivation facility into the glycerol-CHP technology demonstration. This would utilize low-grade waste heat from a CHP system; CO2 from the flue gas of CHP, and saline waste water from desalination operations, ultimately demonstrating the technical feasibility of power generation with a low overall carbon footprint based on CHP linked to an algae biorefinery.

Key funded projects

  1. PHYCPoC-05 (2015-16) BBSRC £10,000 with Cellexus Ltd. Cultivation of Dunaliella salina, an extremophile, for glycerol and carotenoids using a novel Single-Use Bioreactor
  2. ABSig SPARK Plus (2015-16) £5,000 with Bioextractions Ltd. Tuning algae for biofuel profitably
  3. ABSig SPARK (2014-15) £5,000 with IOTA Pharmaceuticals. Engineering Micro-algae for Pharmaceutical Production
  4. Macrobiocrude: (2013-2017) EPSRC) £164,422
  5. The CO2 algae biorefinery: D-Factory KBBE.2013.3.2-02 (2013-2017) €10 573 671 Lead Partner for a collaboration with13 partners from Portugal UK, Holland, Germany, Italy, Greece, Israel, Sweden (7 SMEs, 2 Research Institutes, 2 Universities, 2 Large Enterprises).
  6. ECOTEC 21: CHP technologies with biofuels including glycerol. (2011-2015) €4,261,405.00 Interreg funding with Medway Council as lead of which €1,384,000 to the University. Leading a university team drawn from the Schools of Engineering, Architecture and Construction, Psychology, and Business, and Facilities Management to develop the biofuel (glycerol) supply chain and demonstrate biofuel (glycerol) CHP.
  7. Zerowise Sustainable Food Waste Solutions (2009-13) £969,727 SEEDA-EU ERDF with ReMade South East (Lead Partner), £72,000 to the University. The aim is to operate demonstration trials to test the collection and treatment of commercial food waste in the South East by anaerobic digestion or composting, to reduce waste going to landfill.
  8. EU ACP Science and Technology (2009-13) €857,055: (Lead): Capacity-building in South Africa, Namibia and Ghana to create sustainable, non-food bio oil supply chains from oil-bearing plants and microalgae for providing CHP electricity, and in the future, the chemical feedstocks needed to replace fossil fuels, by linking the relevant science and technology academics, professionals, decision-makers and support scheme managers from South Africa, Namibia, Ghana, Italy and the UK. Specifically to build capacity in the research institutes and universities of Partner countries to develop the supply of sustainable bio-oil from 2nd generation oil-bearing plants (jatropha, salicornia) and from microalgae; and develop new products with high value.
  9. Novel catalysis of microalgae for conversion to biofuels (2008-11) £67,500 Kebbi State Nigeria. (Lead). The aim is to use SCF extraction to produce products including glycerol from halophytic microalgae
  10. Glycal: Glycerol Power from Microalgae - Aquafuel Research (2011) £3,934 SEEDA Innovation and Sustainability (Lead), to develop EU FP7 grant applications.
  11. Chemicals from lignocellulose - BioSep (2011) £2,000 (Lead), to review progress in lignin technologies
  12. AD digestate analysis and consultation - British Sugar (2011) £11,000 (Lead)
  13. Production purification of biodiesel from plant oils of different origin (2007-10) £51,000 SEEDA-RAE (Lead)
  14. An integrated process for the production of biodiesel from oilseed rape (2007-9) £749,600 Realising the Economic Potential of emerging technologies – collaborative project for the development of energy technologies (SEEDA). (Lead). Collaborators: 12 partners –KCC, BLK, Farming Consultancy and SMEs in Kent

Recent publications


de Souza Celente, Gleison , Medianeira Rizzetti, Tiele, de Cassia de Souza Schneider, Rosana, Harvey, Patricia , Sui, Yixing (2022), Organic Carbon is ineffective in enhancing the growth of Dunaliella. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Fermentation, 8: 261 (6) . pp. 1-15 2311-5637 (Online) (doi:

Sui, Yixing , Mazzucchi, Laura, Acharya, Parag, Xu, Yanan , Morgan, Geraint , Harvey, Patricia (2021), A comparison of β‐carotene, phytoene and amino acids production in Dunaliella salina DF 15 (CCAP 19/41) and Dunaliella salina CCAP 19/30 using different light wavelengths. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Foods, 10: 2824 (11) ISSN: 2304-8158 (Print), 2304-8158 (Online) (doi:

Xu, Yanan and , Harvey, Patricia (2021), Mitosis inhibitors induce massive accumulation of phytoene in the microalga Dunaliella salina. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Marine Drugs, 19: 595 (11) ISSN: 1660-3397 (Print), 1660-3397 (Online) (doi:

Sui, Yixing and , Harvey, Patricia J. (2021), Effect of light intensity and wavelength on biomass growth and protein and amino acid composition of Dunaliella salina. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Foods, 10: 1018 (5) 2304-8158 (Online) (doi:

Xu, Yanan and , Harvey, Patricia J. (2020), Phytoene and phytofluene overproduction by Dunaliella salina using the mitosis inhibitor chlorpropham. Elsevier B.V.. In: , , , . Elsevier B.V., Algal Research, 52: 102126 ISSN: 2211-9264 (Print), (doi:

Harvey, Patricia J. and , Ben-Amotz, Ami (2020), Towards a sustainable Dunaliella salina microalgal biorefinery for 9-cis β-carotene production. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Algal Research, 50: 102002 2211-9264 (Online) (doi:

Maneein, Supattra , Milledge, John J., Harvey, Patricia, Nielsen, Birthe (2020), Methane production from Sargassum muticum: effects of seasonality and of freshwater washes. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Energy and Built Environment, 2 (3) . pp. 235-242 ISSN: 2666-1233 (Print), (doi:

Mazzucchi, Laura , Xu, Yanan, Harvey, Patricia (2020), Stereoisomers of colourless carotenoids from the marine microalga dunaliella salina. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Molecules, 25: 1880 (8) . pp. 1-15 1420-3049 (Online) (doi:

Xu, Yanan and , Harvey, Patricia (2019), Red light Control of β-Carotene isomerisation to 9-cis β-carotene and carotenoid accumulation in Dunaliella salina. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Antioxidants, 29: 2019050218 (5) 2076-3921 (Online) (doi:

Weinrich, Tobias , Xu, Yanan, Wosu, Chiziezi, Harvey, Patricia , Jeffery, Glen (2019), Mitochondrial function, mobility and lifespan are improved in Drosophila melanogaster by extracts of 9-cis-β-Carotene from Dunaliella salina. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Marine Drugs, 17 (5) . pp. 279-288 1660-3397 (Online) (doi:

Xu, Yanan and , Harvey, Patricia J. (2019), Carotenoid production by Dunaliella salina under red light. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Antioxidants, 8: 123 (5) 2076-3921 (Online) (doi:

Milledge, John J. , Nielsen, Birthe V., Maneein, Supattra, Harvey, Patricia J. (2019), A brief review of anaerobic digestion of algae for bioenergy. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Energies, 12: 1166 (6) ISSN: 1996-1073 (Print), 1996-1073 (Online) (doi:

Maneein, Supattra , Milledge, John J., Nielsen, Birthe V., Harvey, Patricia J. (2018), A review of seaweed pre-treatment methods for enhanced biofuel production by anaerobic digestion or fermentation. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Fermentation, 4: 100 (4) . pp. 1-31 2311-5637 (Online) (doi:

Milledge, John J. , Nielsen, Birthe V., Sadek, Manar S., Harvey, Patricia J. (2018), Effect of freshwater washing pretreatment on Sargassum muticum as a feedstock for biogas production. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Energies, 11: 1771 (7) 1996-1073 (Online) (doi:

Milledge, John J. , Nielsen, Birthe V., Harvey, Patricia J. (2018), The inhibition of anaerobic digestion by model phenolic compounds representative of those from Sargassum muticum. Springer Netherlands. In: , , , . Springer Netherlands, Journal of Applied Phycology, 31 (1) . pp. 779-786 ISSN: 0921-8971 (Print), 1573-5176 (Online) (doi:

Xu, Yanan , Ibrahim, Iskander M., Wosu, Chiziezi I., Ben-Amotz, Ami , Harvey, Patricia J. (2018), Potential of new isolates of Dunaliella Salina for natural β-Carotene production. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Biology, 7 (1) . pp. 14 ISSN: 2079-7737 (Print), 2079-7737 (Online) (doi:

Onifade, T. B. , Wandiga, S. O., Bello, I. A., Jekanyinfa, S. O. , Harvey, P. J. (2017), Conversion of lignocellulose from palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit fibre and physic (Jatropha curcas) nut shell into bio-oil. Academic Journals. In: , , , . Academic Journals, African Journal of Biotechnology, 16 (46) . pp. 2167-2180 1684-5315 (Online) (doi:

Xu, Yanan , Ibrahim, Iskander M., Wosu, Chiziezi I., Rowden, Stephen J. L. , Harvey, Patricia (2017), High light responses by isolates of Dunaliella reveals their potential for hyper-accumulation of carotenoids. In: , , , . , N/A (doi: ) NB Item availability restricted.

Redden, Hilary , Milledge, John J., Greenwell, H. Chris, Dyer, Philip W. , Harvey, Patricia (2016), Changes in higher heating value and ash content of seaweed during ensiling. Springer. In: , , , . Springer, Journal of Applied Phycology, 29 (2) . pp. 1037-1046 ISSN: 0921-8971 (Print), 1573-5176 (Online) (doi:

Milledge, John J. and , Harvey, Patricia J. (2016), Golden tides: Problem or golden opportunity? The valorisation of sargassum from beach inundations. MDPI AG. In: , , , . MDPI AG, Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 4: 60 (3) ISSN: 2077-1312 (Print), (doi:

Xu, Yanan , Ibrahim, Iskander M., Harvey, Patricia J. (2016), The influence of photoperiod and light intensity on the growth and photosynthesis of Dunaliella salina (chlorophyta) CCAP 19/30. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 106 . pp. 305-315 ISSN: 0981-9428 (Print), (doi:

Milledge, John J. and , Harvey, Patricia J. (2016), Potential process 'hurdles' in the use of macroalgae as feedstock for biofuel production in the British Isles. Wiley & Sons Ltd. In: , , , . Wiley & Sons Ltd, Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 91 (8) . pp. 2221-2234 ISSN: 0268-2575 (Print), 1097-4660 (Online) (doi:

Huber, Christian , Preis, Martina, Harvey, Patricia J., Grosse, Sylvia , Letzel, Thomas , Schröder, Peter (2016), Emerging pollutants and plants – Metabolic activation of diclofenac by peroxidases. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Chemosphere, 146 . pp. 435-441 ISSN: 0045-6535 (Print), 1879-1298 (Online) (doi:

Milledge, John J. and , Harvey, Patricia J. (2016), Ensilage and anaerobic digestion of Sargassum muticum. In: , , , . , (doi: ) NB Item availability restricted

Book section

Milledge, John J. , Thompson, Elinor P., Sauvetre, Andre, Schroeder, Pater , Harvey, Patricia (2019), Novel developments in biological technologies for wastewater processing. Elsevier. In: , , In: Charis M. Galanakis, Evita Agrafioti (eds.), Sustainable Water and Wastewater Processing. Elsevier, . pp. 239-278 . ISBN: 9780128161708 (doi: NB Item availability restricted.

Milledge, John J. and , Harvey, Patricia J. (2018), Anaerobic digestion and gasification of seaweed. Springer International Publishing. In: , , In: Pabulo H. Rampelotto, Antonio Trincone (eds.), Grand Challenges in Marine Biotechnology. Springer International Publishing, Cham (1st) . pp. 237-258 . ISBN: 9783319690742 (doi:

Conference item

Milledge, John J. , Nielsen, Birthe, Harvey, Patricia (2018), Sargassum – Menace, Methane, Mouth and More. In: 3rd Medway Engineering Conference, 20 June 2018, University of Greenwich, Medway Campus , . , (doi: ).


Aksnes, Dag Lorents , Holm, Poul, Bavinck, Maarten, Biermann, Frank , Donovaro, Roberto , Harvey, Patricia , Hynes, Stephen , Ingram, John , Kaiser, Matthias , Kaushik, Sachi (2017), Food from the Oceans - How can more food and biomass be obtained from the oceans in a way that does not deprive future generations of their benefits?. Science Advice for Policy by European Academies (SAPEA). In: , , , . Science Advice for Policy by European Academies (SAPEA), Berlin (doi:


Harvey, Patricia and , Xu, Yanan (2019), Production of Dunaliella. In: , , , . , (doi:

Schroeder, Declan , Harvey, Patricia, Xu, Yanan (2018), ALGAL STRAINS. In: , , , . , (doi: