Lynn Hulse

Dr Lynn Hulse MA Hons, PhD

Research Fellow in Human Behaviour

Lynn Hulse joined the University’s interdisciplinary research group FSEG (Fire Safety Engineering Group) in November 2005. Her research focuses on people’s safety and security. She studies human behavioural responses (actions, cognitions, emotions) in situations posing a potential or actual threat. These include building fires, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and pedestrian-vehicle interactions.

Lynn’s qualifications and professional experience include:

  • PhD (University of Aberdeen) and Visiting Scholar (Simon Fraser University) in psychology - applied cognitive/law and forensic
  • UCPD (De Montfort University, AiTS) in forensic road collision investigation
  • Steering group member producing national guidance on investigative interviewing as part of justice system reforms (Scottish Executive)
  • Research with developers and end users of models, simulations, and AI (e.g. evacuation models, firearms training simulators, autonomous vehicles)
  • Secondments/knowledge transfer with fire and rescue services in Italy (CNVVF), Corsica (SIS 2B), and the UK (Kent FRS)

Recognition

Membership of professional bodies and learned societies:

  • British Psychological Society (BPS) – Chartered Psychologist (CPsychol)
  • BPS Defence & Security Psychology Section
  • Institute of Civil Protection and Emergency Management (ICPEM)
  • Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (SARMAC)

Reviewer for journals and funding bodies including:

  • Safety Science
  • Fire Safety Journal
  • Ergonomics
  • Applied Cognitive Psychology
  • Legal and Criminological Psychology
  • Journal of Risk Research
  • Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)
  • UK Government’s Home Office

Research / Scholarly interests

Lynn’s research is (a) aimed at benefiting society, through (b) assisting public services and civilians, by (c) providing them with improved knowledge, data or tools, and ultimately (d) helping to save lives and reduce injuries and distress. Some examples are:

  • Collaborating with the fire service, civil protection, and local government to conduct wildfire evacuation trials in settlements, thereby training/educating professionals and residents, plus gathering data to enhance disaster simulations – as done in the Italian municipality of Gualdo Tadino
  • Examining percepts of dwelling fires and creating a tool to help laypersons provide investigators with more accurate, meaningful descriptions of encountered hazards (smoke, flames) – as used by survivors in their witness statements for the Grenfell Tower Inquiry

To identify, quantify, understand, and predict human behaviour, Lynn employs diverse research methods. These encompass:

  • questionnaire surveys (e.g. with residents affected by fires resulting in localised or mass evacuation)
  • interviews (e.g. with survivors of and first responders to disasters such as the 9/11 and 7/7 terrorist attacks)
  • experiments (e.g. involving perception of risk, approach/withdrawal from simulated threats, timing of movement)
  • observation (e.g. of different types of road users interacting with one another in a natural setting)
  • secondary analysis (e.g. of witness statements, emergency calls, photos, CCTV and other evidence collected by investigators)
  • literature reviews (i.e. compiling and critically evaluating existing findings, theoretical contributions, and methods)

Key funded projects

  • GEO-SAFE (supported by EU H2020-MSCA-RISE programme) – wildfires, mass evacuations
  • Construction Site Evacuation Safety (supported by IOSH) – construction site safety, emergency evacuations
  • GATEway (supported by Innovate UK, CCAV, and industry) – autonomous vehicles, road user (including pedestrian) safety
  • LIFEBID (supported by Innovate UK and EPSRC) – dwelling fires, human behaviour database
  • BeSeCu (supported by EU FP7 Security programme) – various disasters/emergencies, civilian and first responder behaviour, culture
  • HEED (supported by EPSRC) - 9/11 terrorist attacks, World Trade Center building evacuations

Recent publications

Article

Hulse, Lynn M. , Deere, Steven, Galea, Edwin R. (2021), Fire safety in construction: site evacuation and self-reported worker behaviour. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Safety Science, 145: 105482 ISSN: 0925-7535 (Print), (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105482) NB Item availability restricted.

Vaiciulyte, Sandra , Hulse, Lynn M., Veeraswamy, Anand, Galea, Edwin R. (2020), Cross-cultural comparison of behavioural itinerary actions and times in wildfire evacuations. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Safety Science, 135: 105122 . pp. 1-11 ISSN: 0925-7535 (Print), (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2020.105122) NB Item availability restricted.

Hulse, Lynn M. , Galea, Edwin R., Thompson, Owain F., Wales, David (2019), Perception and recollection of fire hazards in dwelling fires. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Safety Science, 122: 104518 ISSN: 0925-7535 (Print), (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.104518) NB Item availability restricted.

Vaiciulyte, Sandra , Galea, Edwin R., Veeraswamy, Anand, Hulse, Lynn M. (2019), Island vulnerability and resilience to wildfires: A case study of Corsica. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 40: 101272 ISSN: 2212-4209 (Print), 2212-4209 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101272) NB Item availability restricted.

Thompson, Owain F. , Hulse, Lynn M., Galea, Edwin R. (2018), A review of the literature on human behaviour in dwelling fires. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Safety Science, 109 . pp. 303-312 ISSN: 0925-7535 (Print), (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.06.016).

Hulse, Lynn M. , Xie, Hui, Galea, Edwin R. (2017), Perceptions of autonomous vehicles: Relationships with road users, risk, gender and age. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Safety Science, 102 . pp. 1-13 ISSN: 0925-7535 (Print), (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.10.001) NB Item availability restricted.

Gwynne, S.M.V. , Hulse, L.M., Kinsey, M.J. (2016), Guidance for the model developer on representing human behavior in egress models. Springer US. In: , , , . Springer US, Fire Technology, 52 (3) . pp. 775-800 ISSN: 0015-2684 (Print), 1572-8099 (Online) (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10694-015-0501-2) NB Item availability restricted.

Kehl, Doris , Knuth, Daniela, Hulse, Lynn, Schmidt, Silke (2014), Predictors of postevent distress and growth among firefighters after work-related emergencies — A cross-national study. American Psychological Association. In: , , , . American Psychological Association, Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 7 (3) . pp. 203-211 ISSN: 1942-9681 (Print), 1942-969X (Online) (doi: https://org/10.1037/a0037954).

Knuth, Daniela , Kehl, Doris, Hulse, Lynn, Schmidt, Silke (2014), Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: A cross-national study with European emergency survivors. Wiley-Blackwell. In: , , , . Wiley-Blackwell, Risk Analysis, 34 (7) . pp. 1286-1298 ISSN: 0272-4332 (Print), 1539-6924 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.12157) NB Item availability restricted.

Kehl, Doris , Knuth, Daniela, Hulse, Lynn, Schmidt, Silke (2014), Posttraumatic reactions among firefighters after critical incidents: cross-national data. Taylor & Francis Group. In: , , , . Taylor & Francis Group, Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 23 (8) . pp. 842-853 ISSN: 1092-6771 (Print), 1545-083X (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2014.938143) NB Item availability restricted.

Kehl, Doris , Knuth, Daniela, Galea, Edwin, Hulse, Lynn , Sans, Jordi , Valles, Lola , Seidler, Frank , Diebe, Eberhard , Kecklund, Lena , Petterson, Sara (2014), Advancing disaster relief: Development of a self-report questionnaire for firefighters. American Psychological Association. In: , , , . American Psychological Association, International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 3 (3) . pp. 167-183 ISSN: 2157-3883 (Print), 2157-3891 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036423) NB Item availability restricted.

Knuth, Daniela , Kehl, Doris, Holubová, Markéta, Hulse, Lynn , Schmidt, Silke (2014), Relationships between firefighters’ post-event distress and growth at different times after distressing incidents. American Psychological Association. In: , , , . American Psychological Association, Traumatology: An International Journal, 20 (4) . pp. 253-261 ISSN: 1534-7656 (Print), 1085-9373 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0099832).

Knuth, D. , Kehl, D., Hulse, L., Spangenberg, L. , Brähler, E. , Schmidt, S. (2014), Risk perception and emergency experience: comparing a representative German sample with German emergency survivors. Taylor & Francis Group. In: , , , . Taylor & Francis Group, Journal of Risk Research, 18 (5) . pp. 581-601 ISSN: 1366-9877 (Print), 1466-4461 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2014.910685) NB Item availability restricted.

Grimm, Anna , Hulse, Lynn, Preiss, Marek, Schmidt, Silke (2013), Behavioural, emotional, and cognitive responses in European disasters: results of survivor interviews. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. In: , , , . John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Disasters, 38 (1) . pp. 62-83 ISSN: 0361-3666 (Print), 1467-7717 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/disa.12034) NB Item availability restricted.

Knuth, Daniela , Kehl, Doris, Galea, Ed, Hulse, Lynn , Sans, Jordi , Vallès, Lola , Roiha, Malin , Seidler, Frank , Diebe, Eberhard , Kecklund, Lena (2013), BeSeCu-S – a self-report instrument for emergency survivors. Taylor & Francis Group. In: , , , . Taylor & Francis Group, Journal of Risk Research, 17 (5) . pp. 601-620 ISSN: 1366-9877 (Print), 1466-4461 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2013.815649) NB Item availability restricted.

Day, Rachel C. , Hulse, Lynn M., Galea, Edwin R. (2013), Response phase behaviours and response time predictors of the 9/11 World Trade Center evacuation. Springer US. In: , , , . Springer US, Fire Technology, 49 (3) . pp. 657-678 ISSN: 0015-2684 (Print), 1572-8099 (Online) (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10694-012-0282-9).

Book section

Grimm, Anna , Hulse, Lynn, Schmidt, Silke (2013), Results of focus groups and scenario pretest. Pabst Science Publishers. In: , , In: Silke Schmidt, Ed Galea (eds.), Behaviour- Security- Culture Human Behaviour in Emergencies and Disasters: A Cross-Cultural Investigatio. Pabst Science Publishers, Lengerich, Germany . pp. 46-49 . ISBN: 9783899678673 (doi: http://www.pabst-science-publishers.com/index.php?30&backPID=30&swords=galea&tt_products=164).

Grimm, Anna , Hulse, Lynn, Schmidt, Silke (2013), Risk perception: Differences in perceived risk of emergencies and disasters across Europe- Data from the pilot study. Pabst Science Publishers. In: , , In: Silke Schmidt, Ed Galea (eds.), Behaviour- Security- Culture Human behaviour in emergencies and disasters: A cross-cultural investigatio. Pabst Science Publishers, Lengerich, Germany . pp. 50-59 . ISBN: 9783899678673 (doi: http://www.pabst-science-publishers.com/index.php?30&backPID=30&swords=galea&tt_products=164).

Schmidt, Silke , Hulse, Lynn, Galea, Ed (2013), Background. Pabst Science Publishers. In: , , In: Silke Schmidt, Ed Galea (eds.), Behaviour - Security - Culture Human Behaviour in Emergencies and Disasters: A Cross-Cultural Investigatio. Pabst Science Publishers, Lengerich, Germany . pp. 11-25 . ISBN: 9783899678673 (doi: http://www.pabst-science-publishers.com/index.php?30&backPID=30&swords=galea&tt_products=164).

Conference proceedings

Hulse, Lynn M. , Galea, Edwin R., Wales, David, Thompson, Owain F. , Siddiqui, Asim (2015), Recollection of flame height and smoke volume in domestic fires. Interscience Communications Ltd. In: , , , Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Human Behaviour in Fire, 201. Interscience Communications Ltd, London , 6 . pp. 453-464 . ISBN: 9780993393303 (doi: ).

Wales, David G. , Thompson, Owain F., Hulse, Lynn, Galea, Edwin R. (2015), From data to difference – considering the application of a large-scale database of human behaviour in accidental dwelling fires. Interscience Communications Ltd. In: , , , Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Human Behaviour in Fire, 201. Interscience Communications Ltd, London , 6 . pp. 465-476 . ISBN: 9780993393303 (doi: ).

Thompson, Owain , Hulse, Lynn, Wales, David, Galea, Edwin (2013), "Get out, stay out" versus occupier independence: the results of an 18 month study of human behaviour in accidental dwelling fires in Kent. Interscience Communications. In: , , , Conference Proceedings: Interflam 2013: 13th International Fire Science and Engineering Conferenc. Interscience Communications, Greenwich, London, UK , 2 . pp. 943-954 . ISBN: 9780955654893 (doi: ).

Monograph

Galea, E. R. , Deere, S., Xie, H., Hulse, L. , Cooney, D. (2019), Construction site evacuation safety: Evacuation strategies for tall construction sites: Research report. IOSH (Institution of Occupational Safety and Health). In: , , , . IOSH (Institution of Occupational Safety and Health), Wigston, Leicestershire (doi: https://www.iosh.com/constructionevacuation).

Galea, E. R. , Deere, S., Xie, H., Hulse, L. , Cooney, D. (2019), Construction site evacuation safety: Evacuation strategies for tall construction sites: Research summary. IOSH (Institution of Occupational Safety and Health). In: , , , . IOSH (Institution of Occupational Safety and Health), Wigston, Leicestershire (doi: https://www.iosh.com/constructionevacuation).