Research activities

Significant Research Activites


Crime, Law and (In)Security Research Group covers both Law and Criminology and has the aim of developing research that spans both disciplines within the School of Law and Criminology. Moving forward, the Group will focus on inter-disciplinary work and act as a means of developing a close working relationship between colleagues in both Law and Criminology.  It also serves to nurture new Research initiatives with the potential to develop a life of their own – something that has been achieved most recently by a group of colleagues working together on issues associated with Gender, Diversity and Sexuality.

This was the first of the current Research groups to be established in the School of Law and Criminology.  It was originally a ‘catch-all’ group that accommodated all Law and Criminology researchers.  As Research activity developed in the School, other groups were formed out of it.  Importantly, it continues to accommodate ‘lone’ researchers, Professor Mark Pawlowski being a good example.  His Research on the Land Law of England and Wales has produced a substantial body of work.  Another example is Professor Steven Haines. whose work on the Protection of Schools in Armed Conflict has resulted in one of the two Impact Case Studies submitted for REF21, which involved no collaboration within the School but which involved significant international engagement). Dr Dragana Spencer’s work on the role of language and translation in international criminal justice and the rights of accused has been developed through external collaborations, as has Dr Michael Fiddler’s work on ghost criminology.  By far the most significant body of collaborative Research conducted within the Group, in terms of income generation and outputs, has been led by Darrick Joliffe, who has coordinated a major funded study for the Ministry of Justice, into Deaths in Custody, as well as other prison related studies.  The Group will continue to foster collaboration and high-quality research, with a particular ambition for Greenwich to be in the forefront of Law/Criminology inter-disciplinary work.

Significant Research Activities from the Crime, Law and (In)Security Research Group

Project 1. Addressing Disproportionality of Treatment in Prison

Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic groups are over-represented in prison. Members of these groups make up around 12.4% of the general population (aged over 18) but over 25% of the approximately 85,000 individuals in prison. The reasons for this over-representation have been shown to include biases against BAME groups at every step of the criminal justice process including policing practices (especially stop and search), prosecution and disposals. However, what has received much less research attention is the disproportionate treatment of BAME groups in prison.  BAME prisoners are more likely to be subject to use of force by prison officers, more likely to be placed in segregation, more likely to be on the Basic regime (meaning they are ‘banged up’ 23 hours a day) and less likely to progress in their sentences to less restrictive prison regimes.  Based on interviews with prisoners, prison officers, senior managers and embedded community groups this research explores the potential reasons for this disproportionate treatment and evaluates one initiative designed to address this complex issue.  This research was a collaborative effort including the University of Greenwich, The Runnymede Trust and The Ipswich and Suffolk Commission for Racial Equality and was funded by the National Offender Management Service.

Project 2. Protecting Schools from Military Use during Armed Conflict

This work has had impact at the very highest international level – within the United Nations Security Council and General Assembly, both of which have debated the output of the Research and development that Professor Steven Haines led on the production of International Guidelines on the Military Use of Schools.  Those Guidelines, which are the core of the Safe Schools Declaration, have to date been adopted by 107 states globally, including many that have recently experienced or continue to experience armed conflict. The then Foreign Secretary (Boris Johnson) announced UK endorsement during the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in London in 2018.  Haines carried out this pro bono work from 2012 as Legal and Military Consultant to the Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (a mix of civil-society NGOs and UN agencies) The impact so far has been considerable and continues to grow.  Most recently, the UN, through an unopposed General Assembly Resolution, declared that in future the 9 September would be designated the annual International Day for the Protection of Education from Attack.  As a direct result of his work in this area, Haines was invited to Chair Save the Children International’s Civil-Military Engagement Advisory Board. Much of his network that enabled this work is focused on Geneva, where he worked prior to joining Greenwich in 2012. His international academic, professional, governmental and civil-society networks are substantial, most of which are reflected in his Linkedin profile (listing over 1,000 connections) a substantial number resulting from his work in this area.

For the work of the Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack see:

Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (

For a full report on this project see Haines’s account at the following link:

"Protecting Schools & Universities in Armed Conflict" by Steven Haines (

Project 3. London Pathway Project

The London Pathway Project (LPP) is an innovative whole-systems approach to addressing the needs of offenders who have severe personality disorder, with the goal of reducing their risk of harm.  This project, which is ongoing, is about examining the implementation of the pathway and examining its impacts. Over 3,400 offenders were screened into the pathway in the first 48 months but fewer were recorded as having progressed. It was not possible to determine whether this attrition reflected appropriate pathway action, inefficient service provision or weak recording procedures. Certain types of offenders were represented at progressive stages of the pathway. Those who had violent or sexual offences, had received custodial sentences, had more personality disorder indicators and were of higher risk were more likely to be found at progressive stages of the pathway. Also, those of Non-White ethnicity were no less likely than those of White ethnicity to be recommended or referred for services but were significantly less likely to start services.

Jolliffe, D., Cattell, J., Raza, A. & Minoudis, P. (2017). Factors associated with progression on the London Pathway project. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 27, 222-237.

Jolliffe, D., Cattell, J., Raza, A. & Minoudis, P. (2017). Evaluating the impact of the London Pathway Project. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 27, 238-253.