Ian Swaine

Professor Ian Swaine BSc (Hons), PhD

Professor of Sport and Exercise Science

Ian has been Professor of Sport and Exercise Science at the University of Greenwich since 2015. He has been a Sport and Exercise Scientist for over 30 years, having completed his undergraduate studies at Liverpool John Moores University in 1981 and having his final year undergraduate dissertation published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (Swaine and Reilly, 1983). He went on to work for Leeds Sports Development Unit as a Sport Scientist, with responsibilities for promoting adult health-related fitness in the city. At the same time, he completed a PhD in the Cardiovascular Studies Unit, within the Faculty of Clinical Medicine at Leeds University. He has worked at Sunderland, De Montfort, Canterbury Christ Church University and currently the University of Greenwich. Ian is a former keen competitive swimmer having reached top 3 in the country at 100m Breaststroke. Subsequently he has completed numerous marathons, triathlons and mountain biking events.

Research and Scholarly Interests:
Ian's main research expertise is within "the effects of Isometric exercise on resting blood pressure" and he has supervised several PhD students to completion within this research area. He has also published numerous papers on this subject and has presented work around the world. Ian also has considerable research experience within the field of the 'science of swimming' and has spent much of his academic career developing and researching "the use of dry-land ergometry in understanding swimming performance". His work in this area is known around the world for innovative development of novel swimming machines, that have been used to enhance the understanding of swimming performance. Previously he patented a prototype swimming machine.
He has also carried out considerable research work on "physical activity and health in children", having supervised two PhD student theses on this topic. His studies have included analysis of the physiological effects of school PE and health-related effects of brisk walking in primary school children. His PhD students have used portable breathing analysis systems and physical activity assessment via accelerometry, to enhance our understanding of the benefits that this type of physical activity can bring to children.

Ian has published research work on other "health" topics, such as amenorrhoea in young female runners, anaphylaxis in an asthmatic runner, and also biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in older men who exercise regularly. Ian has been a lifelong asthma sufferer and many years ago he pioneered swimming programmes for asthmatic children. More recently, Ian has published in peer-reviewed journals on the topic of frailty, sarcopenia and dysphagia. Ian has an adjunct Professorship with the University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. He has fostered strong research links within the Kinesiology Programme there. He has also established research collaborations with workers in the USA, Australia, Japan and Europe.

In the last 10 years, Ian has gained considerable external research grants for exercise-related work with hospital patients. He has recently completed the project management of a feasibility study exploring the value of a resistance exercise programme for patients undergoing surgery for abdominal cancer. It is hoped that this work will be scaled-up to a larger trial and subsequently rolled-out across the entire NHS. He has also recently gained funding for a second feasibility study to explore exercises that might improve dysphagia. This external grant funding has come from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) funding stream. Indeed, Ian is a member of the grant-awarding panel for the NIHR south central region.

In total, Ian has had about 100 published research articles in scientific peer-reviewed journals, he has a least one patent and he has secured over £700k in external grant funding over the last 5 years. He has directly supervised about 20 PhD students to completion, some of whom have been awarded prizes for their work, which Ian supervised. He has been an active member of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) for about 35 years, holding positions of Education and Training Chairperson, Grant Awarding panel member and Dissertation of the Year Award panel member for this organisation. He was also a BASES representative member of the QAA subject benchmarking panel in 1999.

Posts held previously:
  • Health-related Exercise Advisor. Leeds City Council – Sports Development Unit (1984-1991).
  • Lecturer – Physiology/Health Studies. University of Sunderland – School of Health Sciences, 1991-1993.
  • Senior Lecturer and Principal Lecturer. De Montfort University Bedford. School of PE, Sport and Leisure. 1993-2002.
  • Reader in Sport and Exercise Science. Canterbury Christ Church University College. Department of Sport Science, Tourism and Leisure. 2002-2015
  • Professor and Head of Sports Science. University of Greenwich. Mar 2015-
  • Adjunct Professor in Human Kinesiology. University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Feb 2015-


  • Several External Examinerships for PhD vivas.
  • Panel member for the National Institute for Health (NIHR) Research for Patient Benefit grant-awarding committee for South Central Region.
  • Member of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES).
  • Sub-Editor for the Journal of Sports Medicine Online (Hindawi).
  • Reviewer for several journals.

Research / Scholarly interests

  • The assessment of exercise performance in athletes (especially swimmers)
  • Health benefits of exercise
  • Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in sedentary people (with a view to applying the findings to patient populations)
  • Performance in a variety of sports including running and cycling
  • Research in 'swimming science' and especially involving simulated swimming
  • Physical activity and health in children
  • The effects of isometric exercise training on resting blood pressure
  • Exercise rehabilitation programmes in patients who have undergone surgery for cancer and other illnesses.

Key funded projects

External Grants
1.Awarding BodyEast Kent Research Sessions Scheme

  • a.Project"Development of an Intervention: Prevention of Falls in older Heamophiliacs – The STABLE project".
  • b.Grant Value£23, 543.  2014.

2.Awarding Body: NIHR RfPB.

  • a.Project: "Development of a perioperative exercise intervention for patients undergoing elective abdominal and thoracic surgery for cancer – The BETTER Project".
  • b.Grant value: £378,678.  2014-17.

3.Awarding Body: NIHR/Health Education England.

  • a.Project: Integrated Clinical Academic Partnership (ICAP) "Hosting of a Research Internship Scheme for Allied Health Professionals from Kent, Surrey and Sussex".
  • b.Grant value: £50,000. 2016-17 (Renewable annually).

4.Awarding Body: NIHR RfPB.

  • a.Project: "The effects of chin tuck against resistance (CTAR) exercise, with feedback, on dysphagia in elderly patients with swallowing difficulties".
  • b.Grant value: £249,000. 2020-22.

Recent publications


Edwards, Jamie J. , Coleman, Damian A., Ritti-Dias, Raphael M., Farah, Breno Q. , Stensel, David J. , Lucas, Sam J. E. , Millar, Philip J. , Gordon, Ben D. H. , Cornelissen, Véronique , Smart, Neil A. (2024), Isometric exercise training and arterial hypertension: an updated review. Springer. In: , , , . Springer, Sports Medicine ISSN: 0112-1642 (Print), 1179-2035 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-024-02036-x).

Laza-Cagigas, Roberto , Seijo Bujia, Marcos, Swaine, Ian, Rampal, Tara , Naclerio, Fernando (2023), Commentary. Key aspects of multimodal prehabilitation in surgical patients with cancer: a practical approach to integrating resistance exercise programmes. SAGE. In: , , , . SAGE, Evaluation and the Health Professions ISSN: 0163-2787 (Print), 1552-3918 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/01632787231218993).

Swaine, Benjamin , Zacherle, Emily, Whitmire, Sarah, Leamy, Larry , Bennett, Jeanette , Marino, Joseph , Reitzel, Adam , Huet, Yvette , Swaine, Ian , Baddeley-White, Daniel (2023), Isometric exercise and blood pressure: 12-weeks of training/ detraining in the elderly. Allen Press - Exercise and Sports Science Australia (ESSA) - Clinical Exercise Physiological Association (CEPA). In: , , , . Allen Press - Exercise and Sports Science Australia (ESSA) - Clinical Exercise Physiological Association (CEPA), Journal of Clinical Exercise Physiology, 12 (1) . pp. 3-11 ISSN: 2165-6193 (Print), 2165-7629 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.31189/2165-6193-12.1.3) NB Item availability restricted.

Blair, Carolyn , Slee, Adrian, Davenport, Andrew, Fouque, Denis , Johnston, William , Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar , Maxwell, Peter , McKeaveney, Clare , Mullan, Robert , Noble, Helen (2022), Developing an evidence and theory based multimodal integrative intervention for the management of renal cachexia: a theory of change. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Healthcare, 10: 2344 (12) . pp. 1-25 2227-9032 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10122344).

Kolimechkov, Stefan , Seijo Bujia, Marcos, Swaine, Ian, Thirkell, Jack , Colado, Juan C. , Naclerio, Fernando (2022), Physiological effects of microcurrent and its application for maximising acute responses and chronic adaptations to exercise. Springer. In: , , , . Springer, European Journal of Applied Physiology ISSN: 1439-6319 (Print), 1439-6327 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-022-05097-w).

Blair, Carolyn , Shields, Joanne, Mullan, Robert, Johnston, William , Davenport, Andrew , Fouque, Denis , Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar , Maxwell, Peter , McKeaveney, Clare , Noble, Helen (2022), Exploring the lived experience of renal cachexia for individuals with end-stage renal disease and the interrelated experience of their carers: Study protocol. Public Library of Science (PLoS). In: , , , . Public Library of Science (PLoS), PLoS ONE, 17: e0277241 (11) . pp. 1-14 1932-6203 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0277241).

Baross, A. W. , Kay, A. D., Baxter, B. A., Wright, B. H. , McGowan, C. L. , Swaine, I.L. (2022), Effects of isometric resistance training and detraining on ambulatory blood pressure and morning blood pressure surge in young normotensives. Frontiers. In: , , , . Frontiers, Frontiers in Physiology, 13: 958135 1664-042X (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.958135).

Essex, Ryan , Bruce, Gemma, Dibley, Molly, Newton, Paul , Thompson, Trevor , Swaine, Ian , Dibley, Lesley (2022), A systematic scoping review and textual narrative synthesis of the qualitative evidence related to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing, 45: 100921 ISSN: 1878-1241 (Print), (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijotn.2022.100921).

Baross, Anthony W. , Brook, Robert D., Kay, Anthony D., Howden, Reuben , Gaillard, Ebony C. , Gordon, Ben D. H. , Milne, Kevin J. , McGowan, Cheri L. M. , Swaine, Ian L. (2022), Effects of isometric leg training on ambulatory blood pressure and morning blood pressure surge in young normotensive men and women. Nature Research. In: , , , . Nature Research, Scientific Reports, 12: 356 (1) 2045-2322 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-04092-z).

Smithard, David , Hansjee, Dharinee, Henry, Darrien, Mitchell, Laura , Sabaharwal, Arjun , Salkeld, Jo , Yeung, Eirene , Younus, Osman , Swaine, Ian (2020), Inter-relationships between frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition and dysphagia in older people who are admitted to acute frailty and medical wards: is there an older adult quartet?. MDPI. In: , , , . MDPI, Geriatrics, 5: 41 (3) ISSN: 2308-3417 (Print), 2308-3417 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030041).

Baddeley-White, Daniel S. , McGowan, Cheri L., Howden, Reuben, Gordon, Benjamin D. H. , Kyberd, Peter , Swaine, Ian L. (2019), Blood pressure lowering effects of a novel isometric exercise device following a 4-week isometric handgrip intervention. Dove Medical Press. In: , , , . Dove Medical Press, Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 2019 (10) . pp. 89-98 1179-1543 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S193008).

Smithard, David G. and , Swaine, Ian (2019), Healthy ageing, appetite, frailty and sarcopenia: a brief overview. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 28 . pp. 121-125 ISSN: 1876-3820 (Print), 1876-3839 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2019.02.009).

Cortesi, Matteo , Gatta, Giorgio, Swaine, Ian, Zamparo, Paola , Konstantaki, Maria (2018), Laboratory-based ergometry for swimmers: a narrative review. Edizioni Minerva Medica. In: , , , . Edizioni Minerva Medica, The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness ISSN: 0022-4707 (Print), 1827-1928 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.18.09100-4).

Nathan, Joseph Alexander , Davies, Kevin, Swaine, Ian (2018), Hypermobility and sports injury. BMJ. In: , , , . BMJ, BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 4: e000366 (1) 2055-7647 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2018-000366) NB Item availability restricted.

Gordon, B. DH. , Vinoski Thomas, E., Warren-Findlow, J., Marino, J. S. , Bennett, J. M. , Reitzel, A. M. , Leamy, L. J. , Swaine, I. , Howden, R. (2018), A comparison of blood pressure reductions following 12-weeks of isometric exercise training either in the laboratory or at home. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 12 (11) . pp. 798-808 ISSN: 1933-1711 (Print), 1878-7436 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2018.09.003) NB Item availability restricted.

Smithard, David G. , Shazra, Mariyam, Hansjee, Dharinee, Swaine, Ian (2018), Frailty, swallowing and dysphagia. Springer US. In: , , , . Springer US, Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports, 6 (3) . pp. 192-196 2167-4833 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s************94-9).

Stephensen, D. , Hashem, F., Corbett, K., Bates, A. , George, M. , Hobbs, N. , Hopkins, M. , Hutchins, I. , Lowery, D. , Pellatt-Higgins, T. (2018), Effects of pre- and post-operative resistance exercise interventions on recovery of physical function in patients undergoing abdominal surgery for cancer: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Publishing Group. In: , , , . BMJ Publishing Group, BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, 4: e000331 (1) 2055-7647 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2017-000331) NB Item availability restricted.

Morrin, Niamh M. , Stone, Mark R., Swaine, Ian L., Henderson, Keiran J. (2017), The use of the CR-10 scale to allow self-regulation of isometric exercise intensity in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive participants. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. In: , , , . Springer Berlin Heidelberg, European Journal of Applied Physiology, 118 (2) . pp. 339-347 ISSN: 1439-6319 (Print), 1439-6327 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3774-y).

Smart, Neil A. , Carlson, Debra J., Swaine, Ian, McGowan, Cheri (2017), Commentary on Aerobic versus isometric handgrip exercise in hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. In: , , , . Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Journal of Hypertension, 35 (12) . pp. 2554-2556 ISSN: 0263-6352 (Print), 1473-5598 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001566) NB Item availability restricted.

Somani, Yasina B. , Baross, Anthony W., Brook, Robert D., Milne, Kevin J. , McGowan, Cheri L. , Swaine, Ian L. (2017), Acute response to a 2-minute isometric exercise test predicts the blood pressure-lowering efficacy of isometric resistance training in young adults. Oxford University Press (OUP). In: , , , . Oxford University Press (OUP), American Journal of Hypertension ISSN: 0895-7061 (Print), 1941-7225 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpx173) NB Item availability restricted.

McGowan, Cheri L. , Proctor, David N., Swaine, Ian, Brook, Robert D. , Jackson, Elizabeth A. , Levy, Phillip D. (2017), Isometric handgrip as an adjunct for blood pressure control: a primer for clinicians. Springer US. In: , , , . Springer US, Current Hypertension Reports, 19: 51 (6) ISSN: 1522-6417 (Print), 1534-3111 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-017-0748-8).

Baross, Anthony W. , Hodgson, David A., Padfield, Sarah L., Swaine, Ian L. (2017), Reductions in resting blood pressure in young adults when isometric exercise is performed whilst walking. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. In: , , , . Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Journal of Sports Medicine, 2017: 7123834 . pp. 1-6 ISSN: 2356-7651 (Print), 2314-6176 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7123834) NB Item availability restricted.

Gatta, Giorgio , Cortesi, Matteo, Swaine, Ian, Zamparo, Paola (2017), Mechanical power, thrust power. Taylor & Francis. In: , , , . Taylor & Francis, Journal of Sports Sciences ISSN: 0264-0414 (Print), 1466-447X (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1322214) NB Item availability restricted.

Izaki, Tokie and , Swaine, Ian (2017), Physical activity and obesity among Year 7 children in Kent, U.K: Gender, social background, reasons for being active and implications for school health promotion. Taylor & Francis. In: , , , . Taylor & Francis, International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 55 (4) . pp. 189-204 ISSN: 1463-5240 (Print), 2164-9545 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/14635240.2017.1308263) NB Item availability restricted.

Somani, Yasina B. , Baross, Tony, Levy, Phillip, Zinszer, Kate , Milne, Kevin J. , Swaine, Ian , McGowan, Cheri (2017), Reductions in ambulatory blood pressure in young normotensive men and women after isometric exercise training and its relationship with cardiovascular reactivity. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. In: , , , . Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc, Blood Pressure Monitoring, 22 (1) . pp. 1-27 ISSN: 1359-5237 (Print), 1473-5725 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/MBP.0000000000000222).

Conference proceedings

Cutajar, L. , Falzon, O., Mizzi, A., Swaine, I. , Springett, K. , Mizzi, S. (2018), A novel method to determine dynamic temperature trends applied to in-shoe temperature data during walking. IEEE. In: 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, July 17-21, 2018, Honolulu, HI, USA , 2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC). IEEE, . ISBN: 9781538636473ISSN: 1557-170X (Print), 1558-4615 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2018.8513329) NB Item availability restricted.