Professor Kyriakos Porfyrakis

Professor Kyriakos Porfyrakis BSc, MSc, DPhil, FRSC

Professor of Engineering

Key details

Professor Kyriakos Porfyrakis

Professor of Engineering


Professor Porfyrakis is the Professor (Chair) of Materials and Chemical Engineering at the Faculty of Engineering at Science, University of Greenwich. He joined the University in 2019. He is also an Academic visitor at the Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK, and a Visiting Professor at the Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Previously he was an Associate Professor of Materials, and the Head of the Laboratory for Carbon Nanomaterials at the Department of Materials, University of Oxford, UK.

Professor Porfyrakis holds an Undergraduate degree in Chemical Engineering from Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (1995) and an MSc Degree in Environmental Technology from the Department of Chemical Engineering, UMIST, Manchester, UK (1996). After completing a DPhil in Materials Science at the Department of Materials, University of Oxford in 2000, he established a world-leading laboratory for the production and purification of both nitrogen-containing and metal-containing endohedral fullerene molecules. He has attracted over £2.5 M in funding as a Principal Investigator and another £7.5 M as Co-Investigator in the fields of endohedral fullerenes and organic electronics.

In 2014, Professor Porfyrakis founded a spin out company (Designer Carbon Materials Ltd, www.designercarbon.com). The company is aiming to commercialise endohedral fullerenes and their derivatives. The company has been featured in several national newspapers such as the Sunday Telegraph and the Independent. Designer Carbon Materials Ltd. is now one of the leaders in the field of carbon nanomaterials and has received extended coverage particularly in China and the East where industrial manufacturing is booming.

Responsibilities within the university

Mechanical & Chemical Engineering Portfolio Leader

Materials and Chemical Engineering R&E Group Leader

Awards

2016 Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC). The FRSC title is given to people who "have made an outstanding contribution to the advancement of the chemical sciences; or to the advancement of the chemical sciences as a profession; or have been distinguished in the management of a chemical sciences organisation".

2013-2018 EPSRC Fellowship, Department of Materials, University of Oxford under the theme "Manufacturing the future".

2005-2007 Merit Award by the Department of Materials, University of Oxford, for significant contribution to the work of the Department.

2005 Alan Glanvill Award by the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining for a published work of particular merit in the field of polymers.

1997-1999 Waterson Scholarship by St. Anne's College, University of Oxford.

1996-1999 EPSRC Studentship tenable at University of Oxford, Department of Materials.

Recognition

Editor for the Journal "Molecules " (ISSN 1420-3049)

Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

Research / Scholarly interests

Professor Porfyrakis has nearly 20 years of cutting edge research in the fields of carbon nanomaterials. His expertise is in the synthesis and chemical functionalization of carbon nanomaterials such as endohedral fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene. Endohedral fullerenes and their chemically functionalised derivatives are a highly promising class of nanomaterials in the true sense of the term as they are molecular structures with a diameter of approximately 1nm.

His research vision is to exploit the properties of endohedral fullerenes in order to develop novel functional materials for use in three crucial fields of research: nanoelectronics(quantum information, spintronics and atomic clocks), energy (organic photovoltaics, batteries) and nanomedicine (magnetic contrast agents, spin probes for superoxide radicals and oximetry agents).The Porfyrakis laboratory is in a unique position in the UK and one of only a handful of research centres in Europe that is capable of controlling the synthesis, purification, characterisation and functionalization of endohedral fullerenes that contain both metallic (metallofullerenes) and non-metallic N@C60 and N@C70 elements. The Porfyrakis laboratory has synthesised a series of endohedral metallofullerene species including, for the first time, two isomers of Nd@C82with C2v and Cs symmetries as well as a bimetallic Pr-metallofullerene that has attractive optical properties. Professor Porfyrakis was part of the team that developed a methodology for using single-walled carbon nanotubes as reaction vessels. It was included in the 2006 Guinness Book of Records as the world's smallest test tube with a volume of two zeptolitres, or 2*10-21litres. He is one of the most prolific authors in the field of endohedral fullerenes and is ranked in the top-20 authors in the world in terms of number of publications (source: Web of Science). Indeed, he is the highest ranked author within the UK in this field.

Key funded projects

Professor Porfyrakis has attracted over £2.5 M in funding as a Principal Investigator and another £7.5 M as Co-Investigator. Some current and recent research projects are described below:

EP/R031975/1 EPSRC "Sustainable and industrially scalable ultrasonic liquid phase exfoliation technologies for manufacturing 2D advanced functional materials (EcoUltra2D)", 1 October 2018 to 30 September 2021. Funding: £ 570,384 (Co-Investigator)

Project summary:Two-dimensional materials will play a pivotal role in the 21st century technology. We propose a clean, environment friendly and productive technology of 2D materials exfoliation that does not require the use of polluting and toxic solvents and surfactants; and uses pure water instead. To make it possible we will put the power of ultrasonic cavitation and streaming in the centre of the technology and will make its informed use through a unique, advanced and thorough study of the underlying mechanisms. Manufacturing of 2D materials presents currently a great challenge, from the viewpoints of scalability, productivity, sustainability, and environment. The time is right to establish the best way of manufacturing that will be scalable, eco-friendly and productive. Currently available technologies are based on chemical mechanisms that involve harmful and environment polluting solvents and surfactants, facilitated by the application of external fields such as shearing or ultrasonication (US). We propose to overturn the current paradigm that is focused on physico-chemical exfoliation and put the US processing in the limelight. The scientific novelty lies in establishing the mechanisms of US exfoliation through most advanced and bespoke techniques. The technological step-change advance is in developing a scalable and environment friendly process with the focus on minimising the amount of specialised, expensive and harmful additions, and minimising the processing time with simultaneous increase in the yield and size of 2D sheets.

EP/R029229/1 EPSRC "From nanoscale structure to nanoscale function (NS2NF)", 1 May 2018 to 30 April 2023. Funding: £1,530,594 (Co-Investigator)

Project summary: As we gain ever-greater control of materials on a very small scale, so a new world of possibilities opens up to be studied for their scientific interest and harnessed for their technological benefits. In science and technology nano often denotes tiny things, with dimensions measured in billionths of metres. At this scale structures have to be understood in terms of the positions of individual atoms and the chemical bonds between them. The flow of electricity can behave like waves, with the effects adding or subtracting like ripples on the surface of a pond into which two stones have been dropped a small distance apart. Electrons can behave like tiny magnets, and could provide very accurate timekeeping in a smartphone. Carbon nanotubes can vibrate like guitar strings, and just as the pitch of a note can be changed by a finger, so they can be sensitive to the touch of a single molecule. In all these effects, we need to understand how the function on the nanoscale relates to the structure on the nanoscale.
This requires a comprehensive combination of scientific skills and methods. First, we have to be able to make the materials which we shall use. This is the realm of chemistry, but it also involves growth of new carbon materials such as graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Second, we need to fabricate the tiny devices which we shall measure. Most commonly we use a beam of electrons to pattern the structures which we need, though there are plenty of other methods which we use as well. Third, we need to see what we have made, and know whether it corresponds to what we intended. For this we again use beams of electrons, but now in microscopes that can image how individual atoms are arranged. Fourth, we need to measure how what we have made functions, for example how electricity flows through it or how it can be made to vibrate. A significant new development in our laboratory is the use of machine learning for choosing what to measure next. We have set ourselves the goal that within five years the machine will decide what the next experiment should be to the standard of a second-year graduate student.

The Platform Grant renewal 'From Nanoscale Structure to Nanoscale Function' will provide underpinning support for a remarkable team of researchers who bring together exactly the skills set which is needed for this kind of research. It builds on the success of the current Platform Grant 'Molecular Quantum Devices'. This grant has given crucial support to the team and to the development of their careers. The combination of skills, and the commitment to working towards shared goals, has empowered the team to make progress which would not have been possible otherwise. For example, our team's broad range of complementary skills were vital in allowing us to develop a method, now patented, for making nanogaps in graphene. This led to reproducible and stable methods of making molecular quantum devices, the core subject of that grant. The renewal of the Platform Grant will underpin other topics that also build on achievements of the current grant, and which require a similar set of skills to determine how function on the nanoscale depends on structure on the nanoscale.

EP/P033490/1 EPSRC "Interlocked fullerene and endohedral metallofullerene hosts for molecular machine-like sensing", 23 November 2017 to 15 January 2021. Funding: £875,651 (Co-Investigator)

Project summary: Mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes, which resemble a molecular abacus with rod-like molecules passing through one or more rings and catenanes, which are two or more interpenetrating rings, are firmly established entities in the field of nanoscale molecular machines because of their ability to undergo controlled and reversible molecular motion through changes in the relative positions of their constituent parts. The inherent dynamics of such molecules can be controlled by light, electrochemical and chemical-based stimuli. This proposal aims to exploit their unique topological interlocked host cavities to recognize guest molecules as a means of causing the ring component of a rotaxane or catenane to move from one position to another along an rod-like axle or larger ring component as a sophisticated means of sensing negatively charged species of biological, medical and environmental importance.
Through the attachment of nanoscale 'light bulbs' including luminescent metal 'filaments' inside an all carbon sphere-like football, to specific positions on the ring and axle components, the switching on or off of the light bulb is designed to occur when a target negatively charged species is recognised and causes ring components to slide or shuttle from one station position to another. Such materials can be thought of as "molecular machine-like sensors". Coating these materials on to conducting and optically transparent surfaces will produce devices that will change colour and/or emit light and undergo electrochemical perturbation in response to the addition of a specific negatively charged substrate. Fundamentally, the project will add considerable volume to our understanding of how complex molecular architectures, designed to exhibit dynamic motion, respond when confined to the sorts of surfaces that will, ultimately, underpin their application.

EP/P511377/1 EPSRC Institutional Sponsorship 2016 award, "A miniaturized atomic clock based on endohedral fullerenes", 1 August 2016 to 31 March 2017. Funding: £39,674 (Principal Investigator)

Project summary: Clocks are found inside billions of computer chips, worldwide. Atomic clocks enable accurate location calculation by timing, as used in GPS systems. At present, most atomic clocks are large and power-hungry; there is a clear need for a clock that could work inside a portable device. We are proposing a completely new approach to atomic timekeeping. We seek to build low-cost, solid-state miniature atomic clocks using nature's atom traps: endohedral fullerenes. Endohedral fullerenes are molecules in which a single spin-active atom or molecule is trapped inside a carbon cage. While protected by the cage from environmental disturbances, the resonances of the spin can be interrogated by radiofrequency magnetic fields. This is the basis for an entirely condensed-matter frequency standard. We lead the world in the synthesis and purification of endohedral fullerene systems such as N@C60 where a single nitrogen atom is trapped inside a C60 cage. Miniaturised atomic clocks would find a myriad of applications, from tracking objects and people to driverless cars. It would be of great technological and commercial benefit for Oxford to be the first to demonstrate a working prototype.

John Fell OUP Research Fund "Scaling up the production of endohedral fullerenes", 1 August 2013 to 31 March 2018. Funding: £67,500 (Principal Investigator)

Project summary: Fullerenes are cage-like molecules. The fullerene cages consisting of n carbon atoms are written Cn; when n = 60 the carbon atoms are arranged in a way similar to the vertices on a football. They are about 1 nm across which translates to the fullerenes being as many times smaller than a real football, as this football is smaller than the planet Earth! An atom of another element X can be incarcerated in this cage to produce a so-called endohedral (from Greek words literally meaning within the facets) fullerene, written X@Cn. Endohedral molecules can be manipulated, arranged in 1D chains, 2D lattices or even 3D crystals. Molecules such as N@C60 have exceptionally long electron spin lifetimes. Endohedral fullerenes containing metal atoms in their interior (metallofullerenes) can have remarkable magnetic and optical properties offering practical applications in sensing, healthcare and quantum computing applications. Endohedral fullerenes were discovered about 30 years ago. However, the main limiting factor affecting their use in applications still remains. It is their rarity. They are currently available only in milligram quantities. It is this challenge that the proposed research aims to overcome. During the course of the research, manufacturing methods will be developed for increasing the production of endohedral fullerenes to the gram scale. Such quantities will allow fundamental studies of the physicochemical properties of endohedral fullerenes to be undertaken.

EP/K030108/1 EPSRC Fellowship "Manufacturing the Future; Endohedral fullerenes, small molecules, big challenges", 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2018. Funding: £1,509,283 (Principal Investigator)

Project summary: Fullerenes are cage-like molecules. The fullerene cages consisting of n carbon atoms are written Cn; when n = 60 the carbon atoms are arranged in a way similar to the vertices on a football. They are about 1 nm across which translates to the fullerenes being as many times smaller than a real football, as this football is smaller than the planet Earth! An atom of another element X can be incarcerated in this cage to produce a so-called endohedral (from Greek words literally meaning within the facets) fullerene, written X@Cn. Endohedral molecules have surface manoeuvrability and physical and electronic properties which are greatly enhanced as compared to free-standing atoms of X. They can be manipulated, arranged in 1D chains, 2D lattices or even 3D crystals. Endohedral fullerenes provide one with the ability to effectively manipulate a single atom or a small cluster of atoms that would be otherwise unattainable. Molecules such as N@C60 have exceptionally long electron spin lifetimes. Endohedral fullerenes containing metal atoms in their interior (metallofullerenes) can have remarkable magnetic and optical properties. The main limiting factor affecting their use in applications still remains. It is their rarity. They are currently available only in milligram quantities. It is this challenge that the proposed research aims to overcome. During the course of the research, manufacturing methods will be developed for increasing the production of endohedral fullerenes to the gram scale. Such quantities are not only unprecedented, but they will also allow fundamental studies of the physical and chemical properties of endohedral fullerenes to be undertaken. Once this challenges are met, then the molecules can be controlled or even designed to have specific functionality for use in real-world applications.
The proposed programme of research will result in designer molecules for use in the electronics industry, the energy harvesting sector (photovoltaics) and medicine (free radical probes). In the longer-term hybrid materials will be developed in conjunction with other carbon allotropes (carbon nanotubes and graphene) for electronic devices that will be outperforming current classical technology. Endohedral fullerenes and their derivatives will be brought to the marketplace. The aim is that in the not-too-distant future, they will be found in devices used daily.

Recent publications

Article

Sinha, Sapna , Zhu, Taishan, France-Lanord, Arthur, Sheng, Yuewen , Grossman, Jeffrey C. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Warner, Jamie H. (2020), Atomic structure and defect dynamics of monolayer lead iodide nanodisks with epitaxial alignment on graphene. Nature Publishing Group. In: , , , . Nature Publishing Group, Nature Communications, 11: 823 2041-1723 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14481-z).

Bąk, Krzysztof M. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos, Davis, Jason J., Beer, Paul D. (2019), Exploiting the mechanical bond for molecular recognition and sensing of charged species. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, Materials Chemistry Frontiers, 4 (4) . pp. 1052-1073 ISSN: 2052-1529 (Print), (doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/C9QM00698B).

Barendt, Timothy A. , Myers, William K., Cornes, Stuart P., Lebedeva, Maria A. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Marques, Igor , Félix, Vitor , Beer, Paul D. (2019), The green box: An electronically versatile perylene diimide macrocyclic host for fullerenes. American Chemical Society. In: , , , . American Chemical Society, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 142 (1) . pp. 349-364 ISSN: 0002-7863 (Print), 1520-5126 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b10929).

Dallas, Panagiotis , Tomsik, Elena, Sang Jones, Ruth, Xiao, Albert , Milnes-Smith, Eleanor , Grobert, Nicole , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2019), Electrochemically active water repelling perfluorinated polyaniline films. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Chemical Physics, 528: 110540 ISSN: 0301-0104 (Print), (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphys.2019.110540).

Dallas, Panagiotis , Quijano Velasco, Pablo, Lebedeva, Maria, Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2019), Detecting the photosensitization from fullerenes and their dyads with goldnanoparticles with singlet oxygen sensor green. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Chemical Physics Letters, 730 . pp. 130-137 ISSN: 0009-2614 (Print), (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2019.05.055).

Quijano Velasco, Pablo , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos, Grobert, Nicole (2019), The application of the surface energy based solubility parameter theory for the rational design of polymer-functionalized MWCNTs. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (PCCP), 21 (10) . pp. 5331-5334 ISSN: 1463-9076 (Print), 1463-9084 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cp07411a).

Lhermerout, Romain , Diederichs, Christophe, Sinha, Sapna, Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Perkin, Susan (2018), Are buckminsterfullerenes molecular ball bearings?. American Chemical Society. In: , , , . American Chemical Society, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 123 (1) . pp. 310-316 ISSN: 1520-6106 (Print), 1520-5207 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.8b10472).

Sinha, Sapna , Sheng, Yuewen, Griffiths, Ian, Young, Neil P. , Zhou, Si , Kirkland, Angus I. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Warner, Jamie H. (2018), In-Situ atomic level studies of Gd atom release and migration on graphene from a metallofullerene precursor. American Chemical Society. In: , , , . American Chemical Society, ACS Nano, 12 (10) . pp. 10439-10451 ISSN: 1936-0851 (Print), 1936-086X (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.8b06057).

Macpherson, Harry , Cornes, Stuart, Zhou, Shen, Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2018), A porphyrin-centred fullerene tetramer containing an N@C60 substituent. The Royal Society. In: , , , . The Royal Society, Royal Society Open Science, 5: 180338 (7) 2054-5703 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180338).

Gil-Ramírez, Guzmán , Shah, Anokhi, El Mkami, Hassane, Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Briggs, G. Andrew D. , Morton, John J. L. , Anderson, Harry L. , Lovett, Janet E. (2018), Distance measurement of a noncovalently bound Y@C82 pair with double electron electron resonance spectroscopy. American Chemical Society. In: , , , . American Chemical Society, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 140 (24) . pp. 7420-7424 ISSN: 0002-7863 (Print), 1520-5126 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.8b03889).

Ruff, Adrian , Qian, Xin, Porfyrakis, Kyriakos, Ludwigs, Sabine (2018), Effect of the type and number of organic addends on fullerene acceptors for n‐type electronic devices: redox properties and energy levels. Wiley. In: , , , . Wiley, ChemistrySelect, 3 (21) . pp. 5778-5785 2365-6549 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/slct.201800837).

Barendt, Timothy A. , Rašović, Ilija, Lebedeva, Maria A., Farrow, George A. , Auty, Alexander , Chekulaev, Dimitri , Sazanovich, Igor V. , Weinstein, Julia A. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Beer, Paul D. (2018), Anion-mediated photophysical behavior in a C60 fullerene [3]rotaxane shuttle. American Chemical Society. In: , , , . American Chemical Society, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 140 (5) . pp. 1924-1936 ISSN: 0002-7863 (Print), 1520-5126 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b12819).

Leary, Edmund , Roche, Cécile, Jiang, Hua-Wei, Grace, Iain , González, M. Teresa , Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino , Romero-Muñiz, Carlos , Xiong, Yaoyao , Al-Galiby, Qusiy , Noori, Mohammed (2017), Detecting mechanochemical atropisomerization within an STM break junction. American Chemical Society. In: , , , . American Chemical Society, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 140 (2) . pp. 710-718 ISSN: 0002-7863 (Print), 1520-5126 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b10542).

Friedl, Jochen , Lebedeva, Maria A., Porfyrakis, Kyriakos, Stimming, Ulrich , Chamberlain, Thomas W. (2017), All-fullerene-based cells for nonaqueous redox flow batteries. American Chemical Society. In: , , , . American Chemical Society, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 140 (1) . pp. 401-405 ISSN: 0002-7863 (Print), 1520-5126 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b11041).

Porfyrakis, Kyriakos and , Laird, Edward A. (2017), Keeping perfect time with caged atoms. IEEE. In: , , , . IEEE, IEEE Spectrum, 54 (12) . pp. 34-39 ISSN: 0018-9235 (Print), 1939-9340 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2017.8118481).

Dallas, Panagiotis , Zhou, Shen, Cornes, Stuart, Niwa, Hiroyuki , Nakanishi, Yusuke , Kino, Yasuhiro , Puchtler, Tim , Taylor, Robert A. , Briggs, G. Andrew. D. , Shinohara, Hisanori (2017), CF2 - bridged C60 fullerene dimers and their optical transitions. Wiley. In: , , , . Wiley, ChemPhysChem, 18 (24) . pp. 3540-3543 ISSN: 1439-4235 (Print), 1439-7641 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cphc.201701182).

Cornes, Stuart P. , Zhou, Shen, Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2017), Synthesis and EPR studies of the first water-soluble N@C60 derivative. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, Chemical Communications, 53 (95) . pp. 12742-12745 ISSN: 1359-7345 (Print), 1364-548X (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7cc07106j).

Gehring, Pascal , Harzheim, Achim, Spièce, Jean, Sheng, Yuewen , Rogers, Gregory , Evangeli, Charalambos , Mishra, Aadarsh , Robinson, Benjamin J. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Warner, Jamie H. (2017), Field-effect control of graphene–fullerene thermoelectric nanodevices. American Chemical Society. In: , , , . American Chemical Society, Nano Letters, 17 (11) . pp. 7055-7061 ISSN: 1530-6984 (Print), 1530-6992 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03736).

Harding, R. T. , Zhou, S., Zhou, J., Lindvall, T. , Myers, W. K. , Ardavan, A. , Briggs, G. A. D. , Porfyrakis, K. , Laird, E. A. (2017), Spin resonance clock transition of the endohedral fullerene N15@C60. American Physical Society. In: , , , . American Physical Society, Physical Review Letters, 119: 140801 (14) ISSN: 0031-9007 (Print), 1079-7114 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.140801).

Dallas, Panagiotis , Rašović, Ilija, Puchtler, Tim, Taylor, Robert A. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2017), Long stokes shifts and vibronic couplings in perfluorinated polyanilines. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, Chemical Communications, 53 (17) . pp. 2602-2605 ISSN: 1359-7345 (Print), 1364-548X (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C7CC00471K).

Kutsarov, Dimitar I. , Rašović, Ilija, Zachariadis, Alexandros, Laskarakis, Argiris , Lebedeva, Maria A. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Mills, Christopher A. , Beliatis, Michail J. , Fisher, Brett , Bruchlos, Kirsten (2016), Achieving 6.7% efficiency in P3HT/Indene-C70 bisadduct solar cells through the control of vertical volume fraction distribution and optimized regio-isomer ratios. Wiley. In: , , , . Wiley, Advanced Electronic Materials, 2: 1600362 (12) 2199-160X (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aelm.201600362).

Kakogianni, S. , Lebedeva, M. A., Paloumbis, G., Andreopoulou, A. K. , Porfyrakis, K. , Kallitsis, J. K. (2016), Semiconducting end-perfluorinated P3HT–fullerenic hybrids as potential additives for P3HT/IC70BA blends. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, RSC Advances, 6 (100) . pp. 98306-98316 2046-2069 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6RA22857G).

Meysami, Seyyed Shayan , Dallas, Panagiotis, Britton, Jude, Lozano, Juan G. , Murdock, Adrian T. , Ferraro, Claudio , Gutierrez, Eduardo Saiz , Rijnveld, Niek , Holdway, Philip , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2016), Ultra-stiff large-area carpets of carbon nanotubes. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, Nanoscale, 8 (23) . pp. 11993-12001 ISSN: 2040-3364 (Print), 2040-3372 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6NR01660J).

Dallas, Panagiotis , Rašović, Ilija, Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2016), Mapping and tuning the fluorescence of perfluorinated polyanilines synthesized through liquid–liquid interfaces. American Chemistry Society. In: , , , . American Chemistry Society, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 120 (13) . pp. 3441-3454 ISSN: 1520-6106 (Print), 1520-5207 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b00739).

Dallas, P. , Meysami, S. S., Grobert, N., Porfyrakis, K. (2016), Classification of carbon nanostructure families occurring in a chemically activated arc discharge reaction. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, RSC Advances, 6 (30) . pp. 24912-24920 2046-2069 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5ra26325e).

Zhou, Shen , Yamamoto, Masanori, Briggs, G. Andrew D., Imahori, Hiroshi , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2016), Probing the dipolar coupling in a heterospin endohedral fullerene–phthalocyanine dyad. American Chemical Society. In: , , , . American Chemical Society, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138 (4) . pp. 1313-1319 ISSN: 0002-7863 (Print), 1520-5126 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b11641).

Dallas, Panagiotis , Rogers, Gregory, Reid, Ben, Taylor, Robert A. , Shinohara, Hisanori , Briggs, G. Andrew D. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2015), Charge separated states and singlet oxygen generation of mono and bis adducts of C60 and C70. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Chemical Physics, 465-66 . pp. 28-39 ISSN: 0301-0104 (Print), (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphys.2015.12.003).

Rincón-García, Laura , Ismael, Ali, Evangeli, Charalambos, Graice, Iain , Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Agraït, Nicolás , Lambert, Colin (2015), Molecular design and control of fullerene-based bi-thermoelectric materials. Nature Research. In: , , , . Nature Research, Nature Materials, 15 . pp. 289-293 ISSN: 1476-1122 (Print), 1476-4660 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/NMAT4487).

Lau, Chit Siong , Sadeghi, Hatef, Rogers, Gregory, Sangtarash, Sara , Dallas, Panagiotis , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Warner, Jamie , Lambert, Colin J. , Briggs, G. Andrew D. , Mol, Jan A. (2015), Redox-dependent Franck–Condon blockade and Avalanche Transport in a Graphene–Fullerene single-molecule transistor. American Chemical Society. In: , , , . American Chemical Society, Nano Letters, 16 (1) . pp. 170-176 ISSN: 1530-6984 (Print), 1530-6992 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b03434).

Enkin, Nikolay , Liu, Guoquan, Gimenez-Lopez, Maria del Carmen, Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Tkach, Igor , Bennati, Marina (2015), A high saturation factor in overhauser DNP with nitroxide derivatives: the role of 14N nuclear spin relaxation. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 17 (17) . pp. 11144-11149 ISSN: 1463-9076 (Print), 1463-9084 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/C5CP00935A).

Zhou, Shen , Rasovic, Ilija, Briggs, G. Andrew D., Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2015), Synthesis of the first completely spin-compatible N@C60 cyclopropane derivatives by carefully tuning the DBU base catalyst. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, Chemical Communications, 51 (33) . pp. 7096-7099 ISSN: 1359-7345 (Print), 1364-548X (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C5CC01459J).

Kincer, Matthew R. , Choudhury, Rudra, Srinivasarao, Mohan, Beckham, Haskell W. , Briggs, G. Andrew D. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Bucknall, David G. (2014), Shear alignment of fullerenes in nanotubular supramolecular complexes. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Polymer, 56 . pp. 516-522 ISSN: 0032-3861 (Print), (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2014.11.058).

Plant, Simon R. and , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2014), Using electron paramagnetic resonance to map N@C60 during high throughput processing. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, The Analyst, 139 (18) . pp. 4519-4524 ISSN: 0003-2654 (Print), 1364-5528 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4an00734d).

Allen, Christopher S. , Liu, Guoquan, Chen, Yabin, Robertson, Alex W. , He, Kuang , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos , Zhang, Jin , Briggs, G. Andrew D. , Warner, Jamie H. (2013), Optically enhanced charge transfer between C60 and single-wall carbon nanotubes in hybrid electronic devices. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, Nanoscale, 6 (1) . pp. 572-580 ISSN: 2040-3364 (Print), 2040-3372 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C3NR04314B).

Plant, Simon R. , Jevric, Martyn, Morton, John J. L., Ardavan, Arzhang , Khlobystov, Andrei N. , Briggs, G. Andrew D. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2013), A two-step approach to the synthesis of N@C60 fullerene dimers for molecular qubits. Royal Society of Chemistry. In: , , , . Royal Society of Chemistry, Chemical Science, 4 (7) . pp. 2971-2975 ISSN: 2041-6520 (Print), 2041-6539 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3sc50395j).

Liu, Guoquan , Gimenez-Lopez, Maria del Carmen, Jevric, Martyn, Khlobystov, Andrei N. , Briggs, G. Andrew D. , Porfyrakis, Kyriakos (2013), Alignment of N@C60 derivatives in a liquid crystal matrix. American Chemical Society. In: , , , . American Chemical Society, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 117 (19) . pp. 5925-5931 ISSN: 1520-6106 (Print), 1520-5207 (Online) (doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp401582j).