Professor Steven Haines MA, PhD, LLM, FRSA, FNI

Professor of Public International Law

Key details

Steven Haines

Professor Steven Haines

Professor of Public International Law


I moved to Greenwich from Geneva in September 2012, since when my research and teaching has had a substantial bias towards the ‘maritime’, focused on the law and politics of Ocean Governance, Maritime Security and Naval Operational Law.  I have, nevertheless, also retained my previous specialist interest in the broader application of International Humanitarian Law/Law of Armed Conflict (and am the current UK Group President/Chair of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War).

Since I became a full-time career academic in 2003, my work has benefited substantially from over thirty years previous service in the Royal Navy (RN), including on operations and on both the Naval and Central Policy Staffs in the Ministry of Defence (MoD). I took early retirement from the RN to head the Politics and International Relations department at Royal Holloway College, University of London, remaining there for five years.  In 2008, I accepted a post as an academic international lawyer in Geneva, serving on the Management Board of the Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP) and establishing its Security and Law Programme on behalf of the Swiss Federal Departments of Defence and Foreign Affairs.  In that context, I established an annual Security and Law conference for international ‘flag officers’ (generals and admirals of 1 Star rank and above), which included high level attendees from operations underway in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Following my move to Greenwich in 2012, I have had a strong pro bono engagement with international civil-society organisations.  Since 2012, I have acted as legal and military adviser to the Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA), being the author of its International Guidelines for the Protection of Education from Military Use in Armed Conflict which have, to date (early-2021), been formally endorsed by 106 states, including the UK.  Since 2014 I have been an active Trustee of the NGO Human Rights at Sea and am currently leading its work on the development of the Geneva Declaration on Human Rights at Sea.  Since 2018 I have been the Chair of Save the Children International's Civil-Military Engagement Advisory Board.

In my previous RN career, I served at sea in a variety of surface warships, deploying into the North and South Atlantic, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, Indian and Pacific Oceans, as well as waters closer to home.  I am a graduate of both Britannia Royal Naval College Dartmouth and, coincidentally, of the Royal Naval Staff College in Greenwich.  Operationally, I served on UN mandated economic embargo operations off Mozambique (1973), spent over four years with the Northern Ireland Security Forces, latterly as the Head of Operations (coastal security and maritime counter-terrorism) in the naval HQ in Belfast (1977-81)), and served as a British Sea Fisheries Officer for three years from 1988-91 enforcing fisheries regulations (both UK and European) in Britain's Extended Fisheries Zone.  In 2001 I deployed to the British led NATO Multi-National Brigade in Pristina, Kosovo and to the British Joint Task Force HQ in Freetown, towards the end of the civil war in Sierra Leone.

Staff appointments included on the Management Board of HM Naval Base Portland and on the Executive Board of the Armed Forces' 'think-tank' at Shrivenham, in which I was the Head of Research and Project Management. That latter role followed my appointment as the RN member of the MoD’s 1998/99 Strategic Development Study which recommended the establishment of that ‘think tank’ to the then Secretary of State (George Robertson).  I spent a total of eight years as a Royal Navy Commander in the Ministry of Defence, on the Naval Staff (1995-98) and within the Central Policy Staff (1998-2003).  On the Naval Staff I had responsibility for relations between the Royal Navy and the Russian Federation Navy and for trilateral talks between the RN, the US Navy and the Russian Federation Navy, running the UK Delegation to those talks at the US Naval War College, Newport Rhode Island in 1997 and at the Kuznetsov Academy, St Petersburg in 2008. While serving in MoD I was the author of both the RN's strategic doctrine (British Maritime Doctrine, 1999) and the over-arching doctrine for the Armed Forces (British Defence Doctrine, 2001).  I compiled the RN's Handbook on the Law of Maritime Operations used by deployed naval units during the invasion of Iraq in 2003 and was the Chair of the Editorial Board of the official Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (OUP, 2004), being also joint author of its chapter on 'Maritime Warfare'. I also established the team of tri-Service military lawyers that since 2000 has had responsibility for the legal review of all new weapons and associated systems under development or being procured for the UK’s Armed Forces (a legal requirement under Article 36 of 1977 Additional Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions)

I had serious misgivings about both the legality and the strategic wisdom of mounting operations against Iraq in 2003, which partly motivated my early retirement from the Royal Navy and my move into academe that year.

Law

Law

Responsibilities within the university

Responsibilities within the University (Current)

  • Professor of Public International Law
  • Supervisor for Post Graduate Research students
  • Contributor to teaching on the LLM in International and Commercial Law
  • Chair of the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences Post-Graduate Research Degrees Committee (FRDC)
  • Member of the Board of the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences
  • Academic Conduct Officer of the School of Law and Criminology
  • Personal Tutor for Undergraduate Law students

Recognition

I am currently:

  • Academic Associate of the Royal Navy’s Strategic Studies Centre (Adviser on Policy, Strategy and Doctrine to the Naval Staff in the Ministry of Defence);
  • Trustee of the Naval Review (the professional journal for the Royal Navy);
  • Member of the Editorial Board of the journal Marine Policy;
  • Advisory Editor on Springer Publisher’s Operational Maritime Law Series;
  • President/Chair of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War (UK Group);
  • Senior Associate Fellow of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies ( www.rusi.org/inside-rusi/rusi-people )
  • Trustee, Human Rights at Sea (HRAS: www.humanrightsasea.org )
  • Chair of Save the Children International’s Civil-Military Advisory Board;
  • Legal and Military Adviser to the Global Coalition for the Protection of Education from Attack (GCPEA: www.protectingeducation.org )
  • FNI: Fellow of the Nautical Institute (the international, London-based professional institute for qualified mariners)
  • FRSA: Fellow of the Royal Society for Arts, Manufactures and Commerce

I was formerly:

  • Hudson Senior Visiting Fellow, St Antony's College, Oxford (2000-2001);Visiting Fellow, Oxford Changing Character of War Programme (2012-13) The Changing Character of War Centre (ox.ac.uk)
  • Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Rising Powers, Cambridge (2012-2018)  www.crp.polis.cam.ac.uk/research/maritime_governance/people );
  • Visiting Professor in Security and Law, Centre for Security Studies, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich (2009-2015) (Adjunct teaching on Security and Law on its Executive Masters in Advanced Studies (MAS), Security Policy + Management) ( https://css.ethz.ch/en )
  • Adjunct Faculty of the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights (a joint centre of the University of Geneva and the Graduate Institute for International and Development Studies) (2010-2012), teaching a module on IHL/LOAC Weapons Law on its LLM Programme in International Humanitarian Law ( www.geneva-academy.ch );
  • Visiting Fellow in Law, Strategy and Military Operations, Security Studies Institute, Cranfield University (1999-2010), (Designed and taught the core module on Law, Strategy and Military Operations on its MSc Programme in International Security Studies)
  • External Examiner for research degrees for the universities of Cambridge, London (LSE and King's College), Manchester, Cranfield, Aberdeen, Glasgow, Cardiff and Sussex.
  • External Examiner for Masters degrees in International Politics and Security Studies, University of Reading (2004-2008);
  • External Examiner for ‘distance’ Masters degrees in War Studies at King’s College, London (2005-2008)
  • External Examiner for Masters degrees in International Security, Cranfield University (2013-2018).
  • The 2013 Peter Nailor Memorial Lecturer on Defence, Gresham College, the City of London (www.gresham.ac.uk/series/the-peter-nailor-memorial-lecture-on-defence )
  • ‘The 2005 Goldstein Lecturer at Washington College, Chestertown, Maryland, USA, delivering a lecture entitled ‘Anticipation, Pre-Emption, Prevention and Self Defence: The Law and Strategic Common Sense
  • Chair of the University of London’s Military Education Committee (MEC) and the University’s representative on the National Council of Military Education Committees (COMEC) (2006-2008)
  • Elected Member of the International Institute for Humanitarian Law, San Remo, Italy (2010-2015) ( www.iihl.org ).
  • FRGS: Elected Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society (1995-2003)
  • MRIN: Elected Member of the Royal Institute of Navigation (1977-2003)

Research / Scholarly interests

I have an inter-disciplinary approach which principally utilises law, politics, international relations, security studies and history, my aim being to examine legal aspects of international security within broader historical and policy contexts. I have had for some years a specialist interest in the law governing the conduct of military and international security operations, including International Humanitarian Law (IHL)/the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC), including the Laws of Naval Warfare.  I have continued engagement in this field, in particular applying my research to the challenge of protecting schools in zones of armed conflict (the subject of my Impact Case Study for REF2021 – see below).  I am also the current President/Chair of the UK Group of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War

Current Projects

When I returned to Greenwich in 2012, while retaining my specialist interest in IHL/LOAC, I began to build on my maritime credentials and experience, increasingly focusing my research under the general heading of Ocean Governance, including the Law of the Sea and issues to do with maritime security, the maintenance of law, order and security at sea, and Human Rights at sea.   The bulk of my research is currently focused on three book projects and one significant civil-society pro bono work-stream, all having a maritime character:

  • The End of the Grotian Era: From Mare Liberum to Mare Legitimum 1600-2050:   A monograph tracing the development of ocean governance from the 17th Century to the 21st, arguing that the previous devotion to the 'Freedom of the Seas' (or Mare Liberum), while arguably a sensible and workable arrangement in the past, has now become profoundly inappropriate as a means of ensuring good governance at sea. The middle of the 20th Century was a major turning point that seems to have signalled the end of one era and the beginnings of another.  Previous reliance on Mare Liberum as the underpinning principal for Ocean Governance should give way entirely to a new focus on Mare Legitimum (or 'lawful seas').  (Publication in approximately 2023/24).  See the Maritime Executive article at In Pursuit of Safe and Secure Seas (maritime-executive.com).
  • Handbook of Ocean Governance:  This is currently proceeding through review for a leading University Press.  It will be a comprehensive and authoritative assessment of the current state of ocean governance, bringing together a total of around fifty authors contributing just under sixty chapters in all.  I initiated this project and chair an Editorial team consisting of myself and three distinguished co-Editors (based in Chile, Canada and the UK).  (Publication in approximately 2023/4).
  • Maritime Strategy for Medium Powers in the 21st Century:  The product of a collaboration between leading naval thinkers, both practitioners and academics.   Financial support has been provided to the project from the Hudson Trust in Oxford and the Australian Sea Power Centre.  I am running the project together with Rear Admiral James Goldrick of the Royal Australian Navy.  We are reviewing the important work on Medium Maritime Power Strategy published in 1986 by Rear Admiral Richard Hill, which proved influential in Australia and Latin America in particular.  Hill was a notably perceptive strategic thinker who served through four decades in the Royal Navy, including on the Naval Staff in the Ministry of Defence.  Subsequent to his retirement from the Royal Navy, he was for many years both a distinguished Editor of the Naval Review and the Under-Treasurer of the Middle Temple, one of the Inns of Court.  He died on his 88th birthday in 2017.  The volume is being edited and written in the main by friends and colleagues of Hill.  It will take his ideas and apply them to the analysis of maritime power today, including focusing on a range of current medium maritime powers (the UK, Australia, India, Japan, New Zealand, Canada, France, Chile, Russia and South Korea).  It will be published in 1922 by Boydell and Brewer, the leading maritime publisher, publication timed to coincide with the fifth anniversary of Hill’s death.
  • Human Rights at Sea: I have been a Trustee of the charity and NGO Human Rights at Sea ( www.humanrightsatsea.org ) since shortly after it was founded in 2013/14.  As an active Trustee, I am currently leading the project to develop the Geneva Declaration on Human Rights at Sea and to enhance the extent to which International Human Rights Law is regarded as a part of the legal framework for Ocean Governance (I have a paper on this subject in the in the 2021 edition of the  Ocean Yearbook).

Research Impact – REF 2021 Case Study

My Impact Case Study (ICS) is a part of the School of Law and Criminology REF submission (Unit of Assessment 18) for 2021.  This ICS is devoted to the impact of my work for the Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack, for which I researched and developed International Guidelines for the Protection of Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict.  Developed in 2012/13, these have now been adopted/endorsed by over a hundred states globally, they are regularly mentioned in UN Security Council and General Assembly debates, and they prompted the UN General Assembly in 2020 to declare the 9 September annually as the UN’s International Day for the Protection of Schools from Attack.

My full account of the development of the International Guidelines and their impact globally is contained in the following publication:

S Haines, ‘Developing International Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict’ in International Law Studies, Vol.97 (2021) Forthcoming. GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results (Peer reviewed and accepted for publication 1 December 2020.  Open Access and promulgated online at: Developing International Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict - Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (protectingeducation.org) 11 December 2020 ).

For a 2015 recording of an account I gave in Oxford of the development of the Guidelines, go to the following link: Protecting Schools in Conflict: Developing International Guidelines | University of Oxford Podcasts - Audio and Video Lectures

Research Groups

I am a member of the following research groupings within the University:

  • Business, Human Rights and the Environment ( Business, Human Rights and the Environment Research Group | University of Greenwich ): To this group I bring, in particular, my activities related to Human Rights at Sea, including the combating of Modern Slavery at sea, a major problem in the global fishing industry and in the context of maritime trade. I am very keen to work with colleagues in this group on corporate compliance with Human Rights in supply chains having a maritime dimension.
  • The Greenwich Maritime Centre ( Greenwich Maritime Centre | University of Greenwich ): This group is based in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences and is led by Dr Chris Ware, a maritime historian.  It is developing a strong historical flavour in research and my interests in ‘the maritime’ clearly fit with this, especially as I invariably try to place my analysis of international law (including that on the law of war and neutrality at sea and ocean governance) in a historical context.
  • The LETS Lab ( LETS Lab | Research activities | University of Greenwich ): I bring to this cluster my past interest in new and emerging technologies and the law regulating weapons.  When working in the UK MoD I set up the team of military lawyers responsible for the legal review of weapon systems and had a particular academic interest in the development of customary weapons law.  The two areas I am particularly interested in are Artificial Intelligence and Remote/Autonomous Systems.  I am working on a project to run a conference on their weapons applications, which will be a joint project with the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War (of which I am currently the UK President).
  • Crime, Law and (In)Security ( Crime, Law and (In)Security | University of Greenwich ): The work I have previously carried out on the protection of schools in conflict zones (see my Impact Case Study) fits within this group.  I am likely to spend less time with this project from this point on, as I focus in future on ocean governance and related maritime issues.  I will, however, remain associated with group.

Research Students

I currently supervise the following PGR students:

  • Mark Hoskins (Law): The development of Chinese Maritime Law 1840-1960 (First Supervisor)
  • Mohamed Lamine Siari (Law): The work of the International Maritime Organisation: Maritime Security and Human Rights (First Supervisor)
  • Wole Ojokwu (Law): Comparison between the Criminal Justice Systems in Nigeria and England and Wales, and the requirement for the timely conduct of trials with a focus on the crime of Murder (Second Supervisor)
  • Adeola (Ruth) Onafuye (Law):  Privacy, Security and the Law: The Use of CCTV in Care Homes (Third Supervisor)
  • John Leonidas (Humanities and Social Sciences): The Social Dimension of Super-Yachts (Third Supervisor)

My students who have successfully completed their PhDs in Greenwich are:

  • Dr Dirk Siebels, whose thesis is a comparison of maritime security challenges in East and West Africa.
  • Dr Victoria Mitchell, whose thesis is on maritime security cooperation in the Gulf of Guinea; and
  • Dr Louise Hewitt, whose thesis analyses the development of international law relating to terrorism since the 9/11 attacks on New York and Washington DC in 2001.

I am always interested in hearing from potential research students wishing to work in my areas of research.  In future I intend restricting myself to the supervision of those who have a distinct ‘maritime’ flavour to their research ambitions. Although there is a mandatory online application process, I am very keen to discuss research possibilities with potential applicants before they set about completing online applications.  Post-graduate research is a serious and substantial undertaking that should not be embarked upon lightly.  Central to a successful doctoral submission is the relationship between the researcher and their supervisory team.  That relationship starts with an email and an exploratory discussion; do get in touch if you feel your research aspirations and my research focus would be a good match. I am committed to giving ‘best advice’ which I will tailor to your best interests.

Any maritime theme will be of interest to me, including both traditional security issues to do with inter-state naval rivalries, at one end of the spectrum, to human security at the other.  I will, therefore, be very interested in any experienced scholar with a demonstrable maritime interest (perhaps even professional naval or maritime experience) who would like to undertake PG Research. One or two of my research students have recently completed their PhDs and I do currently (early 2021) have some spare supervisory capacity – so do give me a call if you would like to discuss your research ambitions.

The following research themes are of interest to me:

  • Human Rights at Sea: Scholars wishing to explore the issue of Human Rights compliance at sea will be very welcome to discuss their focus with me.  My role as a Trustee of the NGO Human Rights at Sea and my connected network in that context would most certainly benefit supervisees working in that field.
  • The Law of Maritime Security: This includes the Law of Armed Conflict Applicable at Sea and on the military and constabulary roles of navies within the international system generally.   I am an Associate of the Royal Navy’s Strategic Studies Centre and I have a strong network of naval contacts, both in the UK and internationally, which could facilitate appropriate access for my supervisees.
  • Ocean Governance: As the lead Editor for a major Research Handbook on Ocean Governance, I will be very interested in any potential applicant working in any area under that general heading.  There is even the possibility for a research student to become involved in the editorial process for that project (although I should add that at the moment I have no funds to support such involvement, so any assistance provided is likely to be un-remunerated).

Key Publications

1 – Post-REF2021 Publications:

S Haines, ‘Developing Human Rights at Sea’, in A Chircop, S Coffen-Smout and M McConnell (Eds) Ocean Yearbook Vol.35 (2021), pp.18-51. Forthcoming.  Available at 'Developing Human Rights at Sea'. HRAS Trustee publishes in Ocean Yearbook - Human Rights At Sea .  GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results (Peer reviewed and accepted for publication 28 September 2020, Open Access and also promulgated on www.humanrightsatsea.org )

S Haines, ‘Developing International Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict’ in International Law Studies, Vol.97 (2021) Forthcoming. GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results (Peer reviewed and accepted for publication 1 December 2020.  Open Access and promulgated on Developing International Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict - Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (protectingeducation.org) 11 December 2020 ).


2 – Significant Research Outputs produced during the REF 2021 period:

S Haines and C Martin, ‘Prize Courts: Their Continuing Relevance’, Chapter 17 in D Stephens and M Stubbs, The Law of Naval Warfare (Chatswood NSW: LexisNexis Butterworths, 2019) (Pbk: ISBN 9780409350814; ebk: 9780409350821), pp.267-283.  (The Law of Naval Warfare | LexisNexis Australia) GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results

S Haines, ‘Naval Warfare’ in S Casey-Maslen with S Haines, Hague Law Interpreted: The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2018) (ISBN: 978 1 50992 1225), pp.274-312  ( Hague Law Interpreted: The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of Armed Conflict: Stuart Casey-Maslen: Hart Publishing (bloomsburyprofessional.com) ) GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results

S Haines, 'War at Sea: 19th Century Laws for 21st Century Wars?'  International Review of the Red Cross, Volume 98(2), (No.902), September 2017, pp.419-447.  ( War at sea: Nineteenth-century laws for twenty-firstcentury wars? | International Review of the Red Cross (icrc.org) )  GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results

S Haines, 'New Navies and Maritime Powers', in N A M Rodger (Ed), The Sea in History Vol.IV: The Modern World (Martlesham: Boydell Press, 2017) (ISBN: 978 1783271603) pp.81-91 (Anglo-French 'Oceanides' maritime history project). ( Sea in History - The Modern World - Boydell and Brewer )  GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results

S Haines, 'Seapower', in H Smith, J Suarez de Vivero and T Agardy (Eds), The  Earthscan Handbook of Ocean Resources and Management (Abingdon: Taylor and Francis/Routledge, 2015) (ISBN: 978-0-415-53175-7), pp.366-378 ( Routledge Handbook of Ocean Resources and Management - 1st Edition - H ) GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results

S Haines, 'Who is Shipwrecked?' in A Clapham, P Gaeta and M Sassoli (Eds), The Oxford Commentary on the Geneva Conventions (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015) (ISBN: 978-0-19-967544-9), pp.767-780. (American Society of International Law prize-winning volume, 2016) ( The 1949 Geneva Conventions - Hardback - Andrew Clapham, Paola Gaeta, Marco Sassòli - Oxford University Press (oup.com) ) GALA Link:  Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results

S Haines, 'The Influence of Law on Maritime Strategy', in D Moran and J Russell (Eds), Maritime Strategy and Global Order: Markets, Resources, Security (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2016) (ISBN: 978-1-62616-300-3 Hbk; ISBN: 978-1-62616-072-9 Pbk; ISBN: 978-1-62616-301-1 e-book), pp.239-260. ( Maritime Strategy and Global Order | Georgetown University Press ) GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results

S Haines, 'The Developing Law of Weapons: Humanity, Distinction and Precautions in Attack', in A Clapham and P Gaeta (Eds), The Oxford Handbook of International Law in Armed Conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014) (ISBN: 978-0-19-955969-5), pp.273-295. ( The Oxford Handbook of International Law in Armed Conflict - Hardback - Andrew Clapham, Paola Gaeta - Oxford University Press (oup.com) )  GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results

S Haines, 'Military Use of Schools and Universities: Changing Behaviour', in M Richmond, Education Under Attack 2014 (New York: Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack, 2014) (ISBN: 978-0-9910164-5-7), pp.103-112. ( Education Under Attack 2014 - Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (protectingeducation.org) GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results

S Haines, '1907 Hague Convention VIII Relative to the Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines', in International Law Studies (Stockton Center for the Study of International Law, US Naval War College), Vol.90, 2014, pp.412-445. ( viewcontent.cgi (usnwc.edu ) GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results

S Haines, 'Draft Lucens Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict', (New York: Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack, 2013) ( documents_draft_lucens_guidelines.pdf (protectingeducation.org) ) GALA Link: Greenwich Academic Literature Archive - Search results (Although published before the REF21 period, this publication is significant for my Impact Case Study)


3 – Research outputs produced during  REF 2013 period

Submitted for REF:

S Haines, 'The Nature of War and the Character of Contemporary Armed Conflict', in E Wilmshurst (Ed), International Law and the Classification of Conflicts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp.9-31 (ISBN 978-0-19-965775-9).  Contribution to the Chatham House/British Red Cross/UK Ministry of Defence supported Research Project on the Categorisation/Classification of Conflict.

S Haines, 'Northern Ireland 1968-1998', in E Wilmshurst (Ed), International Law and the Classification of Conflicts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp.117-145 (ISBN 978-0-19-965775-9).  Contribution to the Chatham House/British Red Cross/UK Ministry of Defence supported Research Project on the Categorisation/Classification of Conflict

S Haines, '"A Word full of Terror to the British Mind": The Blair Doctrine and British Defence Policy', in D Brown (Editor), The Development of British Defence Policy: Blair, Brown and Beyond (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010), pp.63-80 (ISBN: Hardback 9780754678894; e-book 9781409408499)

S Haines, 'Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and the Use of Force', in G Kassimeris and J Buckley (Eds), Ashgate Research Companion to Modern Warfare (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010), pp.307-328. (ISBN: Hardback 9780754674108; e-book 9780754691778)

S Haines, 'The Influence of Operation Allied Force on the Development of the Jus ad Bellum'International Affairs (Chatham House), Vol.85, No.3 (May 2009), pp.477-490.


Additional outputs not submitted for REF:

S Haines, 'Does Law Influence Maritime Strategy?, in Naval Review, Vol.102, No.1 (Feb, 2014), pp.21-32.

S Haines, 'The International Court of Justice Judgment in Nicaragua v Columbia and its relevance to International Crime and Criminal Law', in Naval Review, Vol.101, No.3 (Aug 2013), pp.240-246.

S Haines, 'Droning on about UAVs: Targeted Killings and Law in the Campaign Against Terror', in Naval Review, Vol.101, No.2 (May 2013), pp.104-109.

S Haines, 'A Note on the International Court of Justice Judgment in Nicaragua v Colombia and its Relevance to International Crime and Criminal Law', posted on A Contrario International Criminal Law Blog ( www.acontrarioicl.com ), 2 Jan 2013.

S Haines, 'Law, War and the Conduct of Naval Operations', in P Hore (Ed), From Dreadnaught to Daring: 100 Years of Comment, Controversy and Debate in the Naval Review, (London: Seaforth, 2012), (ISBN: 978-1-84-832148-9), pp.299-315

S Haines, 'Law, Power and the International System', in S Hoque and S Clark (Eds), Debating a Post-American World: What Lies Ahead? (London: Routledge, 2011), pp254-259 (ISBN 13: Hardback: 978-0-415-69049-2; Paperback: 978-0-415 69055-3; e-book: 978-0-203-15397-0).

S Haines, 'Economic Warfare at Sea: Blockade and Guerre de Course in Maritime Doctrine and Contemporary International Law', in Naval Review, Vol.99, No.4 (Nov 2011), pp.315-322.

S Haines, 'Military Action against Libya: Striking the Balance between Decisive Action and 'Mission-Creep'? 'Geneva Centre for Security Policy, Web-Editorial, posted on 18 March 2011 at www.gcsp.ch/Security-and-Law/News/Web-Editorial-Military-Action-against-Libya-Striking-the-Balance-between-Decisive-Action-and-Mission-Creep.

S Haines and P Dunay, 'The Kosovo Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice and its Political Consequences', GCSP Policy Paper Number 7, Geneva Centre for Security Policy, October 2010

S Haines, 'A Bright Future for International Law?' GCSP Policy Paper Number 3, Geneva Centre for Security Policy, June 2010

S Haines, 'Israel, Gaza and the Blockade: What About the Law?' in Naval Review, Vol.98, No.4 (Nov 2010), pp.313-319.

S Haines, 'Somali Piracy: The Legal Context', Survival: Global Politics and Strategy (International Institute for Strategic Studies), Vol.52, No.3 (February/March 2010), pp.50-54.

S Haines, 'What Future for International Humanitarian Law', in A H Ebnother and E M Felberbauer (Editors), Coping with Global Change: Proceedings of the 8th International Security Forum (Vienna: National Defence Academy and Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sports, in association with the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, 2009), pp.124-128.

S Haines (co-author), 'Report on an Expert Meeting which Assessed Procedural Criticisms made of the UN Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict (The Goldstone Report)', Chatham House (Royal Institute of International Affairs), London, 27 November 2009 (with Dr Mathew Craven, Dr Catriona Drew, Colonel Charles Garraway, Professor Francoise Hampson, Professor Sir Nigel Rodley and Miss Elizabeth Wilmshurst)

S Haines, 'International Law and the Use of Force'in M Imber and T Salmon (Eds), Issues in International Relations, 2nd Edition (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008), pp.89-106. (ISBN13: Hardback 978-0-415-43126-3; Paperback 978-0-415-43127-1; e-book 978-0-203-92659-8)

S. Haines, 'Oral Evidence to the Joint (Parliamentary) Committee on the Draft Constitutional Renewal Bill, First Report', see Chapter 7 on 'War Powers' which summarises the evidence taken and draws conclusions; and see also 'Minutes of Evidence on Questions 19-30', 13 May 2008.

S Haines, 'War Powers and Treaties: Limiting Executive Powers'(A response to UK Ministry of Justice Consultative Paper CP26/07), January 2008.


4 – Research outputs/publications produced during RAE 2008 period

Submitted to RAE 2008:

S Haines, 'Weapons, Means and Methods of Warfare', in E Wilmshurst and S Breau, Perspectives on the ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law, Cambridge University Press (for the Royal Institute of International Affairs and the British Institute of International and Comparative Law), 2007 (ISBN: 978-0-521-88290-3).

S Haines, 'The United Kingdom and Legitimate Military Objectives: Current Practice…..and Future Trends?' in Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg and Volker Epping (Eds), International Humanitarian Law Facing New Challenges (a collection of papers in honour of Professor Dr Knut Ipsen, President of the Deutsches Rotes Kreuz/German Red Cross), Springer Publishers, Berlin, 2007 (ISBN: 978-3-540-49089-0), pp.127-144.

S Haines, 'The United Kingdom's Manual on the Law of Armed Conflict and the San Remo Manual: Maritime Rules Compared', in Yoram Dinstein (Ed), Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, Vol 36, Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden and Boston, 2006.

Ministry of Defence (Commander S W Haines Royal Navy, Chairman Editorial Board), Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Oxford University Press, 2004, pp.lv + 611 pages, ISBN 0-19-924454-5 (Paperback edition: 2005, ISBN 0-19-928728-7). Joint Forewords by the Chief of Defence Staff and the Permanent Under-Secretary of State in the Ministry of Defence.  Formally launched by the Attorney General (Lord Goldsmith QC) at a conference in St Antony's College, Oxford on 1 July 2004.  This volume included: S Haines (Co-author with Professor Vaughan Lowe QC, HH Judge Jeffrey Blackett and Miss Elizabeth Wilmshurst CMG), 'Maritime Warfare', at pp.347-374

Review:"….very good news for all those interested in international humanitarian law.  The reader will find a wealth of useful materials and statements on the law applicable in time of armed conflict.  The UN Commission of Inquiry on Darfur relied heavily upon an advanced copy of the Manual in its findings about the law applicable in internal armed conflicts." (The late Professor Antonio Cassese, Chairman of the Darfur Commission.)


Additional outputs not submitted for RAE2008:

S Haines, Written and Oral Evidence to House of Commons Select Committee on Defence: House of Commons Defence Committee, The Future of the UK's Strategic Nuclear Deterrent: the White Paper (Ninth Report of Session 2006-07), HC 225-I and HC225-II, 7 March 2007.  Written Evidence: 'Memorandum from Professor Steven Haines', HC225-II, pp.Ev 118 to Ev 122; and Record of Oral Evidence, pp. Ev 41 to Ev 56.

S Haines, 'The Real Strategic Environment: A Call for Long-Term Thinking on UK Defence Investment', in RUSI Journal (Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies), Vol.152, No.5, October 2007, pp.14-17.  Subsequently re-printed in Naval Review, Vol.95, No.4.  Subsequently translated into Russian and published in the Russian Armed Forces' journal 'Defence and Security' published in St Petersburg, 2008.

S Haines, 'Trident and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty', Naval Review, Vol.95, No.2 (May 2007)

S Haines and G Drewry (Eds) The Politics of Conflict: Domestic and International Implications of the Iraq War, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, 2006, including personal chapter contribution: S Haines, 'War, Law and Lord Goldsmith'.

S Haines, 'Nuclear Deterrence and Trident: Britain's Lawful Strategic Options', in Frank Barnaby and Ken Booth (Eds), The Future of Britain's Nuclear Weapons: Experts reframe the debate, Oxford Research Group (Current Decisions Report No.28), 2006, (ISBN: 0-9511361-9-4), pp.49-57.

S Haines, 'Replacing Trident: A New Nuclear Debate?'  Naval Review, Vol.93, No.2 (May 2005)

S Haines, 'Genocide, Humanitarian Intervention and International Law', in Hudson Papers Vol.II, Oxford University (Hudson Trust) and UK Ministry of Defence (Naval Staff), 2004, pp.53-90.

(S Haines author) Handbook on the Law of Maritime Operations (BR3012), UK Ministry of Defence (Naval Staff), London, 2003.  Electronic publication promulgated in early 2003 for the use of UK maritime force commanders, in particular those deployed for the war against Iraq.

S Haines, 'The Legal Dimension', in the UK Ministry of Defence publication Strategic Trends (Results of the MoD Strategic Analysis Programme), launched at Chatham House, London by Rt Hon Geoff Hoon, Secretary of State for Defence, 21 March 2003.


5 - Earlier substantial works of particular significance:

British Defence Doctrine (JWP 0-01), UK Ministry of Defence, London 2001 (Author).

British Maritime Doctrine (BR1806), The Stationery Office, London, 1999 (Principal Author and Editor), 245 pages (ISBN 0-11-772910-8).

Recent publications

Article

Haines, Steven and , (2021), Developing international guidelines for protecting schools and universities from military Use during armed conflict. Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College. In: , , , . Stockton Center for International Law, U.S. Naval War College, International Law Studies ISSN: 2375-2831 (Print), (doi: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/ils/vol97/iss1/28/).

Haines, Steven and , (2020), Developing human rights at sea. Brill Academic Publishers. In: , , , . Brill Academic Publishers, Ocean Yearbook, 35 ISSN: 0191-8575 (Print), 2211-6001 (Online) (doi: https://www.humanrightsatsea.org/2020/11/24/article-developing-human-rights-at-sea-human-rights-at-sea-trustee-publishes-in-ocean-yearbook/).

Haines, Steven and , (2017), War at sea: Nineteenth-century laws for twenty-first-century wars?. Cambridge University Press (CUP). In: , , , . Cambridge University Press (CUP), International Review of the Red Cross, 98 (902) . pp. 419-447 ISSN: 1816-3831 (Print), 1607-5889 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1816383117000418) NB Item availability restricted.

Haines, Steven and , (2014), 1907 Hague Convention VIII relative to the laying of automatic submarine contact mines. U.S. Naval War College. In: , , , . U.S. Naval War College, International Law Studies, 90 . pp. 412-445 (doi: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/ils/vol90/iss1/7/) NB Item availability restricted.

Book section

Haines, Steven and , Martin, Craig (2019), Prize courts: their continuing relevance. Lexis/Nexis. In: , , In: Dale Stephens, Matthew Stubbs (eds.), The Law of Naval Warfar. Lexis/Nexis, Sydney, Australia (1st) . ISBN: 9780409350814 (doi: ).

Haines, Steven and , (2018), Naval Warfare. Hart Publishing. In: , , In: Stuart Casey-Maslen, Steven Haines (eds.), Hague Law Interpreted: The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of Armed Conflic. Hart Publishing, Oxford (1st) . pp. 274-312 . ISBN: 9781509921225 (doi: https://www.bloomsburyprofessional.com/uk/hague-law-interpreted-9781509921225/) NB Item availability restricted.

Haines, Steven and , (2016), The influence of law on maritime strategy. Georgetown University Press. In: , , In: Daniel Moran, James A. Russell (eds.), Maritime Strategy and Global Order: Markets, Resources, Securit. Georgetown University Press, Washington DC, USA . pp. 239-260 . ISBN: 9781626160729 (doi: http://press.georgetown.edu/book/georgetown/maritime-strategy-and-global-order) NB Item availability restricted.

Haines, Steven and , (2015), Who is Shipwrecked?. Oxford University Press. In: , , In: Andrew Clapham, Paola Gaeta, Marco Sassòli (eds.), The 1949 Geneva Conventions: A Commentar. Oxford University Press, Oxford . pp. 767-780 . ISBN: 9780199675449 (doi: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/the-1949-geneva-conventions-9780199675449?cc=gb&lang=en&).

Haines, Steven and , (2014), The developing law of weapons: Humanity, distinction and precautions in attack. Oxford University Press. In: , , In: Andrew Clapham, Paola Gaeta (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Law in Armed Conflic. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK . pp. 273-295 . ISBN: 9780199559695 (doi: ).