Denise A Miller

Dr Denise A Miller BA (Hons), PGDipPsy, DECPsy, CPsychol, MSc, SFHEA, RSA Fellow

Associate Professor in Child and Educational Psychology

Denise A Miller achieved a BA in Education from the University of Greenwich. Taught in primary schools for eight years before training to become an Educational Psychologist. Achieved an MSc in Educational Psychology from University College London and started working as a fully qualified Educational Psychologist in the London Borough of Lambeth. The work involved supporting parents and teachers to meet the needs of marginalised children, and those with special educational needs and disabilities through assessment, consultation and in-service training. In 2014, Denise successfully completed a Doctorate in Educational and Child Psychology, and then soon after she returned to the University of Greenwich, this time as a senior lecturer. Currently, Denise is a personal tutor and lecturer for the School of Human Sciences, and a child and educational psychologist in private practice. Denise continues to work in early years, primary and secondary school settings, as well as, further and higher education, and clinical and legal (ie.expert witness and tribunal) contexts.

Posts held previously

  • 2005 - 2014 Senior Educational Psychologist, Lambeth Educational Psychology Service
    Provided advice on assessment, provision and intervention for vulnerable pupils, including those with special educational needs and those looked after by the local authority
  • 1996 - 2004 Special Educational Needs Coordinator, Teacher
    Coordinated the delivery of support for pupils with special educational needs and disabilities. Planning and delivering courses, schemes of work and lessons in line with the National Curriculum

Responsibilities within the university

  • Programme Leader
  • Inclusivity Champion
  • Personal Tutor
  • Module Leader
  • Lecturer
  • Undergraduate, Masters and Doctoral supervisor

Awards

  • 2022 - 2023 nomination for The National Teaching Fellowship
  • 2022 - Poster Prize for British Educational Research Association
  • 2021 - 2022 Award for ILD Best Output
  • 2021 -  2022 award for ILD Impact
  • Several nominations for Inspirational Teaching Award

Recognition

Professional body/membership
  • AdvanceHE
  • Association of Child Psychologists in Private Practice
  • Black and Ethnic Minority Educational Psychology (BEEP) Network
  • British Psychological Society (BPS)
  • British Educational Research Association (BERA)
  • Division of Educational and Child Psychology (DECP)
  • Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC)
  • National Association for Special Educational Needs (NASEN)
  • Royal Society of Arts (RSA)
  • United Kingdom Advising and Tutoring (UKAT)
Membership of External Committees and Working Parties
  • British Psychological Society. Behaviour Working Group
  • British Psychological Society. Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion Group
  • British Psychological Society - Postgraduate Research and Research Methods Group
  • British Psychological Society - Practice Guidelines Group
  • British Psychological Society - Safeguarding Advisory Group
  • British Psychological Society – Unconscious Bias Group
  • Division of Educational and Child Psychology - Committee
  • Division of Educational and Child Psychology - Equality Diversity and Inclusion Implementation Group
  • Division of Educational and Child Psychology - Training Committee
  • GOLD Review Board and Steering Group
  • Health and Care Professions Council. Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics Explanatory Materials Working Group
  • UKAT Equity & Inclusion Special Interest Group
Editorial/Board membership
  • Educational and Child Psychology (Editor)
  • Journal of Multicultural Education (Editorial Advisory Board)
  • London Review of Education (Assistant Editor)
Guest Editorial/Special Issues
  • Intersectional Identities, Education, Psychology, and Social Justice. Educational and Child Psychology. 41(3).
  • Decolonising the Curriculum. Compass. University of Greenwich
  • Decolonising the School Curriculum. London Review of Education
  • Black Lives Matter: making a difference for racial justice. Educational and Child Psychology, 38 (4).
Panel member
  • Division of Educational and Child Psychology (Lifetime Achievement in Educational Psychology)
  • Division of Educational and Child Psychology (Distinguished Contribution to Practice and Doctoral Dissertation)
  • Health and Care Professions Council (Fitness to Practise)
  • Institute of Lifecourse Development (ILD Funding, Best impact/output awards)
  • The Society for Research into Higher Education (Research and Scoping Awards)
Reviewer
  • AdvanceHE – Race Equality Charter (Applications)
  • British Educational Research Association - Annual Conference (Abstracts)
  • British Psychological Society (CPD).
  • Curriculum Journal (Articles)
  • Division of Educational and Child Psychology – Annual Conference (Abstracts)
  • Education and Child Psychology (Articles)
  • London Review of Education (Articles)
  • SAGE Publishing (Book proposals)
  • SN Social Sciences (Articles)
  • The Society for Research into Higher Education - International Research Conference (Submissions)
  • United Kingdom Advising and Tutoring – Annual Conference (Abstracts)

Research / Scholarly interests

Denise is especially interested in undertaking qualitative research that involves examining marginalised educational professional’s and children and young people's experiences in the education sector.

Key funded projects

  • 2022 GRE Innovation Fund
  • 2022 ECR Scheme Request for Research Support
  • 2021 ILD Research Support Funding
  • 2021 BERA Small Grants Fund
  • 2020 ILD Research Support Funding
  • 2015 Research and Enterprise Fund

Recent publications

Article

Gabi, Josephine , Braddock, Alison, Brown, Claire, Miller, Denise A , Mynott, Gwenda , Jacobi, Melissa , Banerjee, Pallavi , Kenny, Karen , Rawson, Andrew (2024), Can the role of a personal tutor contribute to reducing the undergraduate degree awarding gap for racially minoritised students?. John Wiley & Sons. In: , , , . John Wiley & Sons, British Educational Research Journal . pp. 1-20 ISSN: 0141-1926 (Print), 1469-3518 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3999).

Miller, Denise A , Brown, Charmaine, Essex, Ryan (2023), The psychosocial costs of racism to White staff members of an ethnically diverse, post-92 university. UCL Press. In: , , , . UCL Press, London Review of Education, 21: 39 (1) . pp. 1-14 ISSN: 1474-8479 (Print), 1474-8460 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.14324/LRE.21.1.39).

Miller, Denise A , Grant, Denny, Ricketts, Laura, Sangar, Maninder , Douglas, Marsha , Meheux, Melernie , Pinto, Cynthia , Hill, Vivian , The British Psychological Society , The Division of Educational and Child Psychology (2023), Self-assessment framework for promoting racial equity in educational psychology services. Division of Educational and Child Psychology 2023. The British Psychological Society (BPS). In: , , , . The British Psychological Society (BPS), Leicester Self-assessment Framework for Promoting Racial Equity in Educational Psychology Services (1st) (doi: ).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), Play in hospital could improve children’s mental health. The British Psychology Society (BPS). In: , , , . The British Psychology Society (BPS), The British Psychology Society (doi: https://www.bps.org.uk/news/play-hospital-could-improve-childrens-mental-health).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), Blog post: The problem of prejudice, discrimination and institutional racism in a post-92 higher education institution. British Educational Research Association (BERA). In: , , , . British Educational Research Association (BERA), British Educational Research Association (BERA) (doi: https://www.bera.ac.uk/blog/the-problem-of-prejudice-discrimination-and-institutional-racism-in-a-post-92-higher-education-institution).

Miller, Denise A and , Warner, Diane (2023), When being Black and having special educational needs and disabilities converge in children and young people: in conversation with Denise Miller. British Educational Research Association (BERA). In: , , , . British Educational Research Association (BERA), Research Intelligence, 156 . pp. 19-19 (doi: https://www.bera.ac.uk/publication/autumn-2023).

Essex, Ryan , Thompson, Trevor, Evans, Thomas, Fortune, Vanessa , Kalocsanyiova, Erika , Miller, Denise A , Markowski, Marianne , Elliott, Helen (2023), Ethical climate in healthcare: a systematic review and meta-analysis. SAGE. In: , , , . SAGE, Nursing Ethics ISSN: 0969-7330 (Print), 1477-0989 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/09697330231177419).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), Race, Higher Education and special educational needs and disabilities: a critical and intersectional approach. Emerald Publishing. In: , , , . Emerald Publishing, Opinion & Blog (doi: https://www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/opinion-and-blog/race-higher-education-and-special-educational-needs-and-disabilities-a-critical).

Essex, Ryan , Kennedy, Jack, Miller, Denise, Jameson, Jill (2023), A scoping review exploring the impact and negotiation of hierarchy in healthcare organisations. Wiley. In: , , , . Wiley, Nursing Inquiry ISSN: 1320-7881 (Print), 1440-1800 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/nin.12571).

Evans, Thomas , Burns, Calvin, Essex, Ryan, Finnerty, Gina , Hatton, Ella , Clements, Andrew , Breau, Genevieve Marie , Quinn, Francis , Elliott, Helen , Smith, Lorraine (2023), A systematic scoping review on the evidence behind debriefing practices for the well-being/emotional outcomes of healthcare workers. Frontiers Media. In: , , , . Frontiers Media, Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14: 1078797 . pp. 1-10 1664-0640 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1078797).

Evans, Thomas , Burns, Calvin, Essex, Ryan, Finnerty, Gina , Hatton, Ella , Clements, Andrew , Breau, Genevieve Marie , Quinn, Francis , Elliott, Helen , Smith, Lorraine D. (2023), A systematic scoping review on the evidence behind debriefing practices for the wellbeing/emotional outcomes of healthcare workers. Frontiers Media. In: , , , . Frontiers Media, Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14: 1078797 . pp. 1-10 1664-0640 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1078797).

Miller, Denise A , Surendran, Shone, Towers, Emma (2023), Decolonising the school curriculum: a special feature. UCL Press. In: , , , . UCL Press, London Review of Education, 21 (1) . pp. 1-5 ISSN: 1474-8460 (Print), 1474-8479 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.14324/LRE.21.1.06).

Miller, Denise A and , Essex, Ryan (2023), The impact of Covid-19 on self-employed female psychologists in the UK. Elsevier. In: , , , . Elsevier, Journal of Affective Disorders Reports, 11: 100477 . pp. 1-7 2666-9153 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadr.2023.100477).

Wright, Abigail , Greenwood, Alison, Miller, Denise A, Pinto, Cynthia , British Psychological Society (2022), Experiences, quality time and managing expectations: psychologists offer advice on navigating holiday season with children during the cost of living crisis. The British Psychological Society. In: , , , . The British Psychological Society, Division of Educational and Child Psychology (doi: https://www.bps.org.uk/news/experiences-quality-time-and-managing-expectations-psychologists-offer-advice-navigating).

Wright, Abigail , Greenwood, Alison, Miller, Denise A, Pinto, Cynthia , British Psychological Society (2022), Children, young people and families: managing the holiday season during the cost-of-living crisis. The British Psychological Society. In: , , , . The British Psychological Society, Division of Educational and Child Psychology (doi: https://www.bps.org.uk/blog/managing-holiday-season-during-cost-living-crisis).

Miller, Denise A and , (2022), Using constructivist grounded theory to examine the experiences of Black British female managers: a worked example. Nova Southeastern University (NSU). In: , , , . Nova Southeastern University (NSU), The Qualitative Report, 27 (10) . pp. 2135-2156 1052-0147 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2022.5067).

Miller, Denise A and , (2022), Race, Higher Education and special educational needs and disabilities. British Educational Research Association (BERA). In: , , , . British Educational Research Association (BERA), British Educational Research Association report series: Race & Education (doi: https://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/36996/1/race-higher-education-and-special-educational%20needs-and-disabilities).

Vseteckova, Jitka , Markowski, Marianne, Miller, Denise A, Stoner, Charlotte R. , Smith, Lorraine , Rumyantseva, Nataliya , Miles, John , Leu, Agnes , Berger, Fabian , Jones, Kerry (2022), The uses of peer learning with older adults in formal, non-formal and informal learning activities. National Institute for Health Research - University of York, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. In: , , , . National Institute for Health Research - University of York, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews, 2022 (CRD420) . pp. 1-6 (doi: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022307145).

Miller, Denise A , Soni, Anita, Hobbs, Charmian, Gibbs, Simon , Malagoli, Chiara , Morgan, Gavin , Lauchlan, Fraser (2021), Guest Editorial – Black Lives Matter: making a difference for racial justice. The British Psychological Society. In: , , , . The British Psychological Society, Educational and Child Psychology, 38 (4) . pp. 5-8 ISSN: 0267-1611 (Print), 2396-8702 (Online) (doi: https://shop.bps.org.uk/educational-child-psychology-vol-38-no-4-december-2021-black-lives-matter-making-a-difference-for) NB Item availability restricted.

Essex, Ryan , Markowski, Marianne, Miller, Denise (2021), Structural Injustice and dismantling racism in health and healthcare. Wiley. In: , , , . Wiley, Nursing Inquiry, 29: e12241 (1) ISSN: 1320-7881 (Print), 1440-1800 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/nin.12441).

Miller, Denise A and , (2021), Black British female managers – the silent catastrophe. Wiley. In: , , , . Wiley, Gender, Work & Organization, 28 (4) . pp. 1665-1682 ISSN: 1468-0432 (Print), 1468-0432 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12688).

Book section

Miller, Denise and , (2023), Neurodiversity at university. Buckinghamshire Skills Hub. In: , , , Success at School University Guide 2023-24. Buckinghamshire Skills Hub, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire (1st) . pp. 35-36 (doi: https://79590737.flowpaper.com/University2023).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), Research method: Constructivist Grounded Theory. Aspect & The University of Manchester. In: , , In: M. Rodekirchen, L. Pottinger, A. Briggs, A. Barron (eds.), Impactfull social science methodologies for 21st century problems. Aspect & The University of Manchester, Manchester and online Aspect, 2 (1st) . pp. 1-9 (doi: https://aspect.ac.uk/resources/constructivist-grounded-theory/).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), Methods for change: Constructivist Grounded Theory (CGT). Aspect and The University of Manchester. In: , , In: M. Rodekirchen, M. Pottinger, L. Briggs, A. Barron, T. Eseonu, S. Hall, A.L. Browne (eds.), Methods for Change Volume 2: Impactful social science methodologies for 21st century problems. Aspect and The University of Manchester, Manchester Methods for Change Volume 2: Impactful social science methodologies for 21st century problems (1st) . pp. 1-9 (doi: ).

Conference item

Miller, Denise A , Gabi, Josephine, St-Hilaire, Eleanor, Jacobi, Melissa , Banerjee, Pallavi (2024), Equity in Higher Education: a roundtable discussion. UKAT Events. In: UKAT Annual conference: Personal Tutoring in the spotlight, 8th - 9th Apr, 2024, University of Greenwich , UKAT Annual Conference 2024. UKAT Events, (doi: https://www.ukat.ac.uk/events/ukat-annual-conference-2024).

Miller, Denise and , (2024), Using Constructivist Grounded Theory: a step-by-step guide (4th Annual International Research Discussion Panel). In: 4th Annual International Research Discussion Panel, 1st Mar, 2024, University of Greenwich and SEGI Colleges , . , (doi: ).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), Using constructivist grounded theory in equity, diversity, and inclusion research. In: EdD Weekend Programme, 11th Nov 2023, Stockwell, University of Greenwich , EdD Weekend - Greenwich Campus. , (doi: ).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), Teaching beyond the curriculum: race, Higher Education and special educational needs and disabilities. Routledge and UCL Press. In: Teaching Beyond the Curriculum: Focus on Pedagogy 2023, 15th - 17th November 2023, Virtual (UK, USA, China) , Teaching Beyond the Curriculum: Focus on Pedagogy 2023. Routledge and UCL Press, (UK, USA and China) (doi: https://amps-research.com/conference/teaching-2023/).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), CRED Knowledge Exchange Conference. Anti-racism and special educational needs and disability (SEND). In: Centre for Race, Education and Decoloniality (CRED): Knowledge Exchange Event, 29th June 2023, Leeds Beckett University , . , (doi: https://www.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/research/centre-for-race-education-and-decoloniality/).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), Race, Higher Education and special educational needs and disabilities: IEAL-J conference (Jamaica). In: IEAL-J Biennial International Conference on Educational Leadership & Management, 18th - 20th October 2023, Montego Bay, Jamaica , . , (doi: https://www.iealj.org/?page_id=1528).

Miller, Denise A and , Charmaine, Brown (2023), The problem of prejudice, discrimination, and institutional racism in a post-92 Higher Education Institution. In: BERA Conference 2023, 12-14th September 2023, Aston University, Birmingham , . , (doi: ).

Miller, Denise A and , Brown, Charmaine (2023), “I’m managed by a white man who's managed by a white man who's managed by a white woman who's managed by a white man”: A mixed-methods study examining the problem of institutional racism in a UK-based university. In: Examining the problem of institutional racism in a UK-based university, 13th February 2023, Centre for Public Policy Research (CPPR), King's College London , Examining the problem of institutional racism in a UK-based university. , Kings College London (doi: https://www.kcl.ac.uk/events/examining-the-problem-of-institutional-racism-in-a-uk-based-university).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), Unmasking educational inequalities: the impact of Covid-19 on deaf students in HE. In: Unmasking educational inequalities: Covid-19 and deaf students in HE, 30th January 2023, Deaf Cultural Centre, Birmingham , . , (doi: ).

Miller, Denise A , Brown, Charmaine, Essex, Ryan (2023), The psychosocial costs of racism to White staff members of an ethnically diverse, post-92 university: SHIFT Conference. University of Greenwich. In: SHIFT 2024: 'Inclusive Higher Education: Myths and Realities', 10th - 11th Jan 2024, University of Greenwich and online , SHIFT 2024: University of Greenwich Annual Teaching & Learning Conference 10th - 11th January 2024. University of Greenwich, London (1st) . pp. 67-67 (doi: https://www.gre.ac.uk/learning-teaching/shift).

Miller, Denise A and , Brown, Charmaine (2022), Prejudice, discrimination and racism in HE. In: Prejudice, Discrimination and Racism in HE, 16th December 2022, Cardiff Metropolitan University , . , (doi: ).

Miller, Denise A and , (2022), BERA Report Series: race, Higher Education and special educational needs and disabilities. In: BERA Report Series: Race and Education, 6th Dec 2022, Online , . , (doi: https://protect-eu.mimecast.com/s/CSa8C915JFxMzyVIo1hUt?domain=bera.ac.uk).

Miller, Denise A and , (2022), Constructivist Grounded Theory: a method for change. In: Methods for Change: Social science methodologies for 21st century problems, 9th November 2022, University of Manchester , . , (doi: ).

Miller, Denise A and , (2022), The SEND Green Paper: opportunities and challenges ahead. In: Webinar - The SEND Green Paper: Opportunities and Challenges Ahead, 15th June 2022, Online , . , (doi: https://www.bps.org.uk/events/send-green-paper-opportunities-and-challenges-ahead).

Miller, Denise A , Brown, Charmaine, Essex, Ryan (2022), "I’m managed by a white man who's managed by a white man who's managed by a white woman who's managed by a white man”: a mixed-methods study examining the problem of institutional racism in a UK-based University. In: BERA Conference 2022, 6th - 8th September 2022, University of Liverpool University of Liverpool Guild Of Students 160 Mount Pleasant Liverpool, L3 5TR , . , (doi: ).

Miller, Denise A. , Brown, Charmaine, Essex, Ryan (2021), Dissemination of findings on prejudice, discrimination and racism in HE to the School of Education. In: Diversity Interest Group (DIG) Autumn Conference, Wed, 22 September 2021; 10:00 – 16:30 BST, University of Greenwich , . , (doi: https://www.gre.ac.uk/research/groups/crew/diversity-interest-group).

Miller, Denise A and , (2021), Using constructivist grounded theory to examine the experiences of black British female managers. In: Psychology of Women and Equalities Section Virtual Conference: 'Horrible Histories and Feminist Futures', 07.07.2021, Online , constructivist grounded theory, Black British female managers. , (doi: ).

Miller, Denise A and , (2021), Black British female managers’ experiences of working for children and young people’s services. In: University of Greenwich Research Cafe, 23/03/2021, Online , . , (doi: ) NB Item availability restricted.

Miller, Denise A and , (2021), DECP Annual Conference. In: Division of Educational and Child Psychology virtual conference 25-26 March | Online, 23-24/03/2021, Online , . , (doi: ) NB Item availability restricted.

Conference proceedings

Miller, Denise A and , Brown, Charmaine (2023), "I'm managed by a white man who's managed by a white man who's managed by a white woman who's managed man". Hogrefe - European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA) - The British Psychological Society. In: 18th European Congress of Psychology 2023, 3rd - 6th Jul, 2023, Brighton, UK In: EFPA Conference Committee (ed.), European Journal of Psychology Open. Hogrefe - European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA) - The British Psychological Society, Brighton, UK , 82 (S1) (1st) . pp. 327-328 ISSN: 2673-8627 (Print), 2673-8627 (Online) (doi: https://doi.org/10.1024/2673-8627/a000043).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), Addressing issues of equality, diversity and inclusion in educational psychology: current challenges and opportunities. European Congress of Psychology - The British Psychological Society. In: European Congress of Psychology,18th European Congress of Psychology Psychology: Uniting communities for a sustainable world, 3rd - 6th July 2023, Brighton, UK In: ECP2023 Brighton Scientific Committee (ed.), 18th European Congress of Psychology Psychology: Uniting communities for a sustainable world 3rd - 6th July 2023, Brighton, UK. European Congress of Psychology - The British Psychological Society, Brighton, UK (1st) (doi: https://ecp2023.eu/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/ECP-2023-Scientific-Programme.pdf).

Miller, Denise A and , (2023), Keynote: Black British Female Managers - the silent catastrophe. In: 4th Edition: Global Congress On GENDER AND SEXUALITY STUDIES, 12-13th June 2023, Budapest, Hungary , 4th Edition: Global Congress On GENDER AND SEXUALITY STUDIES. , (doi: ).

Miller, Denise A , Brown, Charmaine, Essex, Ryan (2021), Institute for Lifecourse Development Centre for Inequalities. Equality diversity and inclusion research conference. Institute for Lifecourse Development. In: , , In: Denise A Miller, Charmaine Brown, Ryan Essex (eds.), Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism: Experiences of Higher Education Staff. Institute for Lifecourse Development, University of Greenwich, Chatham, UK (1st) . pp. 1-8 (doi: https://www.gre.ac.uk/events/current-events/faculty-of-education-and-health/institute-for-lifecourse-development-equality-diversity-and-inclusion-research-conference).

Other

Miller, Denise A. , Essex, Ryan, Brown, Charmaine (2024), Study highlights White lecturers’ role in tackling systemic racism in higher education. The Voice Newspaper. In: , , , . The Voice Newspaper, Voice Online (1st) (doi: https://www.voice-online.co.uk/news/features-news/2024/05/08/study-highlights-white-lecturers-role-in-tackling-systemic-racism-in-higher-education/).

O’Reilly, Sophie , Miller, Denise A., The British Psychological Society (BPS) (2023), BPS to produce new resource on history of IQ testing. The British Psychological Society (BPS). In: , , , . The British Psychological Society (BPS), Leicester, UK BPS Updates (doi: https://www.bps.org.uk/news/bps-produce-new-resource-history-iq-testing).

Miller, Denise A , Surendran, Shone, Meheux, Melernie (2023), Call for papers: Intersectional identities, education, psychology, and social justice. BPS Explore - The British Psychological Society (BPS). In: , , , . BPS Explore - The British Psychological Society (BPS), London and Leicester (1st) (doi: https://explore.bps.org.uk/news/call-papers-intersectional-identities-education-psychology-and-social-justice?dm_i=6MRE,UFR8,3OHFVQ,3QGBV,1).