Research is a priority area at the Centre for Science and Medicine in Sport and Exercise. The centre promotes and values both individual and multi-disciplinary or collaborative research.

Our staff have a wide range of research interests which helps position the centre as a valuable partner in multi-disciplinary research projects. The centre aligns its research interests and activities under the following themes:

  • Clinical Exercise Science
  • Sport and Exercise Nutrition
  • Analysis of Human Performance

Clinical Exercise Science

One of the principal components of the work that the CSMSE does, relates to those exercise programmes that can bring benefits to the health and well-being of those who have, or who are at risk of, illness. The research interests of those who work in this area include: Exercise rehabilitation after surgery for cancer; Prevention of hypertension through isometric exercise; Anterior cruciate Ligament injury prevention programmes for sport; Exercise as preparation for Surgery; Effects of whole body vibration, and; Prevention of falls using Smartphone technologies.

Selected exemplar publications and grants include:

Nutritional Supplementation, Exercise and Training

The primary objectives of this research are to analyse the effects of multi-ingredient supplements on the performance, training and recovery, and to attenuate possible muscular damage and immunosuppression when performing strength, power, or intermittent endurance exercises. In order to achieve these objectives, this research has examined the effects of combining a 12-week resistance training programme with the ingestion of a carbohydrate-protein-creatine-based supplement on strength performance and body composition in recreationally trained men. In addition, we have examined the acute effects of a carbohydrate and caffeine gel on intermittent sprint performance in recreationally trained males. Current research is designed to examine the acute effects of a multi-ingredient recovery formula on the recovery process and muscle damage after performing a bout of intermittent sprint exercise. This research project is currently funded by GlaxoSmithKline UK Limited (formerly Maxinutrition Ltd) and provides financial support for a three-year PhD student. Key CSMSE staff include Dr. Fernando Naclerio, Dr. Mark Goss-Sampson, and Robert Cooper (PhD Student).

Selected exemplar publications and grants include:


Critical Power in Cycling

Critical Power is a valid marker of endurance capacity but can also be used as a means to differentiate between heavy and severe training intensities. To-date critical power testing has been restricted to the laboratory, limiting external validity, and has required testing to take place over multiple days. This research has two primary goals: (i) To develop methods to test critical power that minimise interruption to training and testing schedules of cyclists compared to conventional testing protocol; and (ii) to explore the generalizability of these methods to testing critical power in the field. Key CSMSE staff include Bettina Karsten. External collaborators include Dr Chris Beedie, (Aberyswyth University), Dr Simon Jobson (University of Winchester) and Dr James Hopker (University of Kent).

Selected exemplar publications:

Strength and Conditioning

Research is looking at analysing the relationship between the perceptual responses with the level of muscular activation, the magnitude of the load, and the variation in the velocity and power experienced along a set to failure using different percentage of 1 RM (30 to 90%) while performing different resistance training exercise.

The establishment of specific perceptual values based on valid tools such as the Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) 0-10 OMNI-RES scale for selecting the load and controlling the velocity of movement when performing different upper and lower body resistance exercises would be a very profitable approach for designing resistance training programmes and obtaining the desired outcomes.

Selected exemplar publications

  • Monajati, Alireza, Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko, Goss-Sampson, Mark and Naclerio, Fernando (2017) Analysis of the hamstring muscle activation during two injury prevention exercises. Journal of Human Kinetics. ISSN 1640-5544 (Print), 1899-7562 (Online) (In Press).
  • Chapman, Mark, Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko, Goss-Sampson, Mark, Colpus, Mark, Triplett, N. Travis and Naclerio, Fernando (2017) Perceptual, mechanical and electromyographic responses to different relative loads in the parallel squat. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. ISSN 1064-8011 (Print), 1533-4287 (Online) (In Press) (doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001867).
  • Naclerio, Fernando and Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko (2016) Relative load prediction by velocity and the omni-res 0-10 scale in parallel squat. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31 (6). pp. 1585-1591. ISSN 1064-8011 (Print), 1533-4287 (Online) (doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001601).
  • Naclerio, Fernando, Chapman, Mark and Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko (2015) Use of the rate of perceived exertion scales in resistance training: A comment on Mayo, Iglesias-Soler, and Fernandez-Del-Olmo (2014). Perceptual and Motor Skills, 121 (2). pp. 490-493. ISSN 0031-5125 (Print), 1558-688X (Online) (doi:10.2466/25.29.PMS.121c19x7).
  • Naclerio, Fernando, Chapman, Mark, Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko, Massey, Ben, Neil, Alex and Triplett, Travis N. (2015) Effects of three different conditioning activity volumes on the optimal recovery time for potentiation in college athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29 (9). pp. 2579-2585. ISSN 1064-8011 (Print), 1533-4287 (Online) (doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000915).
  • Naclerio, Fernando, Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko, Monajati, Alireza and Goss-Sampson, Mark (2015) Effects of two different injury prevention resistance exercise protocols on the hamstring torque-angle relationship: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal, 23 (4). pp. 379-393. ISSN 1543-8627 (Print), 1543-8635 (Online) (doi:10.1080/15438627.2015.1076418)
  • Fernando Naclerio, Gabriel Rodriguez-Romo, Maria I. Barriopedro-Moro, Alfonso Jimenez, Brent A. Alvar, and Travis N. Triplett. Control of Resistance Training Intensity by the OMNI Perceived Exertion Scale. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011 Jul; 25(7):1879-88.

Biomechanical and Physiological Effects of Whole Body Vibration

The use of whole body vibration (WBV) as a novel exercise modality continues to grow in popularity with both exercise practitioners and the scientific community. Recent studies have established the benefits of WBV for improvement of muscle strength and power. However, some of the fundamental biomechanical and physiological changes have still not been fully investigated to explain the underlying mechanisms of these changes. Our current research is examining the effects of different vibration modalities on parameters such as movement, muscular performance, local / muscle blood flow and muscle activation. Key staff and collaborators include Dr Mark Goss-Sampson, Dr Mark Colpus, Mark Chapman and Dr Dan Robbins.

Selected exemplar publications

  • Robbins, Dan, Yoganathan, Priya and Goss-Sampson, Mark (2014) The influence of whole body vibration on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 34 (5). pp. 364-369. ISSN 1475-0961 (Print), 1475-097X (Online) (doi:10.1111/cpf.12103).
  • Robbins, Dan, Bone, Shane, Chapman, Mark and Goss-Sampson, Mark (2014) Effects of vibration on dynamic and stabiliser muscle activities during the press up. Sport and Art, 2 (2). pp. 19-24. ISSN 2331-6195 (Print), 2331-6233 (Online).
  • Robbins, D. and Goss-Sampson, M.A. (2013). Effect of whole body vibration during static squats on myoelectric properties of the vastus lateralis. International Journal of Sports Science. 3, pp.135-140.
  • Robbins, D. and Goss-Sampson, M.A. (2013). The influence of whole body vibration on the plantarflexors during heel raise exercise. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 23, pp. 614-618.
  • Robbins, D., Zeinstra, E., Jimenez, A. and Goss-Sampson, M.A. (2012) Does Whole Body Vibration have Clinically Significant Neurophysiological and Neurovascular Implications? International Journal of Prevention and Treatment. 1, pp. 18-26.
  • Robbins, D., Elwell, C., Jimenez, A. and Goss-Sampson, MA. (2012) Localised Muscle Tissue Oxygenation during Dynamic Exercise with Whole Body Vibration. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 11, pp. 346-351.

Analysis of Human Performance

Accurate analysis of human movement is important for the understanding of sports performance, work-based ergonomics, injury prevention and rehabilitation programmes. The main objectives of our research is to analyse the causes and consequences of complex motion using synchronous 'state of the art' high speed 3D motion analysis, muscle activation patterns and forces. This information can be used to monitor skill development, assess activities of daily life, and provide feedback to sports people, coaches, physiotherapists and rehabilitation specialists. Diverse examples of recent projects include the analysis of golf driving and putting in professional and novice players, activity ability in the aged, and the assessment of body armour ergonomics (Metropolitan Police Service consultancy). Key staff and collaborators include Dr Mark Goss-Sampson, Dr Mark Colpus Dr Fernando Naclerio and Mark Chapman.

Selected exemplar publications

  • Monajati, Alireza, Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko, Goss-Sampson, Mark and Naclerio, Fernando (2017) Analysis of the hamstring muscle activation during two injury prevention exercises. Journal of Human Kinetics. ISSN 1640-5544 (Print), 1899-7562 (Online) (In Press) (doi:10.1515/hukin-2017-0105).
  • Chapman, Mark, Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko, Goss-Sampson, Mark, Colpus, Mark, Triplett, N. Travis and Naclerio, Fernando (2017) Perceptual, mechanical and electromyographic responses to different relative loads in the parallel squat. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. ISSN 1064-8011 (Print), 1533-4287 (Online) (In Press) (doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001867).
  • Monajati, Alireza, Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko, Goss-Sampson, Mark and Naclerio, Fernando (2016) The effectiveness of injury prevention programs to modify risk factors for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament and hamstring injuries in uninjured team sports athletes: A systematic review. PLoS ONE, 11 (5). e0155272. ISSN 1932-6203 (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155272).
  • Naclerio, F., Larumbe, E., Faigenbaum, A. D., Goss-Sampson, M., Perez-Bilbao, T., Jimenez, A., and Beedie, C. (2013). Effects of a low volume injury prevention programme on the hamstring torque angle relationship. Research in Sports Medicine. 21, pp. 253-263.
  • Delextrat, A. and Goss-Sampson, M.A. (2010) Kinematic analysis of netball goal shooting: a comparison between junior and senior players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, pp. 1299-1307.
  • Bassement, M., Garnier, C., Goss-Sampson, M.A., Watelain, W. and Lepoutre, F-X. (2010) Using EMGs and kinematics data to study the take-off technique of experts and novices for a pole vaulting short run-up educational exercise. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 13 pp. 554-558.